GUSTAVUS (gfis-trviis) I (commonly called GUSTAVUS VASA), king of Sweden: b. Lindholmen, 12 May 1496; d. Stockholm, 29 Sept. 1560. He studied at the University of Upsala, and entered the service of Sten Sture the younger, administrator of the kingdom, in 1514. Sweden had, by the union of Calmar, become subject with Norway to the crown of Denmark. The country was at this time di vided into two parties. There was a Danish party headed by the Archbishop of Upsala, and a Swedish party, which upheld the independence of the country, headed by the administrator whom it had raised to power. Gustavus fought with distinction under Sture against the Danes in 1517 and 1518. He was one of six hostages sent by Sture as guarantee of the safety of King Christian II, but effected his escape and reached Liibeck in 1519. After wandering about for some time as a proscribed fugitive he took refuge in the mines of Dalecarlia, where he worked as a common laborer. After vari ous adventures he attempted open resistance. Christian II was crowned at Stockholm on 4 Nov. 1520. On the 8th the leaders of the Swedish party, among whom was Gustavus' father, who had been invited to the coronation, were executed. By the beginning of 1521 Gusta
vus had raised a considerable force, driven the Danes from several positions, and excited a general insurrection in Dalecarlia. In April he defeated the Danes at Westeraas; in July he seized Upsala, and in August was named ad ministrator of the kingdom by the states which had assembled at Wadstena. On 6 June 1523 he was elected king by the Diet of Strengnas. In 1527 he obtained theexclusion of the bishops from the senate and effected their subjection to the civil power. He now openly professed Lutheranism, and was crowned by the "'rotes tant archbishop of Upsala on 12 Jan. 1528. The Lutheran religion was formally established at a diet held at Orebro in 1529. In 1544 the states assembled at Westeraas declared the kingdom hereditary in his house. A war broke out with Russia in 1555, which was concluded by the Peace of Moscow, 2 April 1557. Con sult Alberg, 'Gustavus Vasa and His Times' (1832) ; Watson, The Swedish Revolution under Gustavus Vasa' (1889).