HIPPOPOTAMUS, the generic and popu lar name of a great amphibious ungulate, allied to the swine, of which two species are known. One (H. amphibius) is common throughout the greater part of Africa; the other (H. sis) is not only smaller, but has other import ant differences, and is found only in the Afri can west coast rivers, and those flowing into Lake Tchad. The former species has a thick and square head, a very large muzzle, small eyes and ears, thick' and heavy body, short legs ter minated by four toes, a short tail, two ventral teats, skin about two inches thick on the back and sides, and without hair, except at the ex tremity of the tail. A curious feature of the skin is the reddish exudation which pours from its pores when the animal is excited or in pain. It is called °bloody sweat,° but the blood has no part in it. The incisors and canines of the lower jaw are of great strength and size, the canines or tusks being long and curved forward. These tusks sometimes reach the length of two feet and more, and weigh upward of six pounds. The animal is killed by the natives partly as food, but also on account of the teeth, their hardness being superior to that of ivory, and less liable to turn yellow. The hippopotamus
has been found as much as 14 feet long, and nearly five feet high, but usually measures much less. It delights in water, living in lakes, rivers, and estuaries and feeding on water-plants or on the herbage growing near the water, where it can walk as well as swim. It often leaves the water after nightfall, and goes, sometimes long distances, to grassy pastures to feed; reg ular paths are worn through the reeds, and here the Africans often arrange pits, deadfalls, or other traps for their capture. These animals are quick of sense, timid and anxious to escape danger; but when brought to bay or enraged prove formidable antagonists and often destroy canoes. They are excellent swimmers and divers, and can remain under water eight or ten min utes. The behemoth of job is considered to be the hippopotamus. Several extinct species are found in Old World Tertiary formations, and modern species formerly inhabited not only Madagascar, but southern Europe and India, where they were contemporary with the men of the Stone Age.