HITTORFF, Jacques Ignace, French architect : b. Cologne, 1792; d. 1867. He studied his profession in Paris under Percier. In 1819 25 he traveled in England, Germany and Italy, making a special study of the Greek ruins of Sicily. He became architect to the king in 1825 and in conjunction with Lepere designed the church of Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris, to which he applied the results of his studies of Greek polychromy. The Place de la Concorde has two fine fountains and other embellishments from his hand, likewise the Bois de Boulogne, the Champs Elysees and other squares and boulevards. He was appointed Surveillant-Gen eral du Conseil des Batiments in 1864. Among his publications may be mentioned 'Architecture antique de la Sicile' (1830) ; 'Architecture moderne de la Sicile' (1835) ; and 'Architec ture polychrome chez les Grecs' (1851) — all works of standard and permanent value.
Ferdinand. German theologian: b. Hauingen, Baden, 23 June 1807; d. Heidel berg, 22 Jan. 1875. He was educated at Heidel
berg, Halle and Gottingen. He went to Zurich in 1833 as professor of theology, where he re mained until 1861, when he returned to Heidel berg. He was quite a voluminous writer on the Old Testament, composing commentaries on the Minor Prophets (1838) ; Jeremiah (1841) ; • Ezekiel (1847); Ecclesiastes (1847) • Daniel (1850) ; Song of Solomon (1855). He made a translation of the Psalms in 1835. His Prophet Jesaia iibersetzt and ausgelegt' (1834), gave him a high place among Biblical scholars of his day; as also the 'Exegetisches Handbuch zum alten Testament,' which con tained many of his commentaries. He also wrote on the New Testament, and his general work 'Geschichte des Volkes Israel' (1870), marked an important advance in Biblical arch aology. Consult Cheyne, Pounders of Old Testament Criticism' (London 1893), and the biography by H. Steiner (Zurich 1882).