HOCKEY, a game of ball known as hurley in Ireland and shinty in Scotland, dating in its present form from about 1883, when a definite code of rules was drawn up by the Wimbledon Club. According to standard rules the game is played between two teams of 11 players each, on a ground 100 yards long by 50 to 60 yards wide. A goal is erected at each end of the field, and consists of two uprights 12 feet apart sup porting a horizontal bar 7 feet from the ground. In front of each goal a line 12 feet long is drawn parallel to the goal-line and 15 yards from it; and from each end of this line, with the corresponding goal-post as centre, a seg ment of a circle is drawn outwards to meet the goal-line. Thus, a kind of semi-circle flattened at the top is drawn in front of each goal, and no goal is scored unless the ball is hit from within this line or striking-circle. The ball used is an ordinary cricket ball painted white; and each player is provided with a stick, curved at the end, without any metal fittings, and not too thick to be passed through a ring two inches in diameter. The players are arranged on the
field as in Association football, namely, goal keeper, two backs, three half-backs, five for wards. The game is started by one player of each side bullying the ball in the centre of the ground, that is, by first striking the ground with his stick and then striking his opponent's stick three times, after which either may strike the ball. When the ball is driven between the goal posts under the bar by a stroke from within the striking-circle, a goal is scored, and the game is won by the side with a majority of goals scored. The ball may be caught or stopped with any part of the body, but it must not be carried, kicked or knocked on except with the stick; it must be played from right to left only. The goal-keeper is allowed to kick the ball away in defending his goal. Ends are changed at half time.