Betting and The preva lence of the practice of betting in connection with horse-racing is a fact so well known that it is needless to enlarge upon it, although it will be of interest to some to explain in what man ner it is conducted. Bettors are divided into two classes — the backers of horses and the bookmakers, or professional bettors, who form the betting ring, and make a living by betting against horses according to a methodical plan. Backers of horses may be again divided into those who have special information about the qualities of the horses which are to engage in a race, which enables them to back a particular horse with a certain amount of confidence; and those who have no such means of information, and accordingly back horses pretty much at ran dom. The former class, if their information is good, have a very fair chance of success in their speculations and the horse that wins any great race usually brings in to his owner vast sums in payment of bets, compared with which the stakes, considerable as they often are, are insig nificant; but the latter class are pretty certain in the long run to lose. By the method adopted by the professional bettor the element of chance is as far as possible removed. Instead of back ing any particular horse, the professional bettor lays the same sum against every horse that takes the field, or a certain number of them, and in doing so he has usually to give odds, which are greater or less according to the esti mate formed of the chance of success which each of the horses has on which the odds are given. In this way while in the event of the race being won (as is usually the case) by any of the horses entered in the betting-book of a professional bettor, the latter has always a cer tain fixed sum (say $5,000) to pay, he receives from the backers of the losers stuns which vary in proportion to the odds given. Thus, if a bookmaker is making a 5,000 book and the odds against some horse is 4 to 1, he will, if that horse wins, have to pay $5,000, while, if it loses, he will receive $1,250. If the sum of the amounts to which the horses in a particular race have been backed in some professional bettor's book is $6,500, and if the odds against the first favorite were 5 to 2 (or $5,000 to $2,000), then the total sum received by the bookmaker, in the event of the race being gained by the first favorite, would amount to $6,500, $2,000 or $4,500, so that he would suffer a loss of $500; while if a horse had won that had long odds against him (say 200 to 1, or $5,000 to $25), his total receipts would amount to $6,475 and his gains to $1,475. Very fre quently the receipts of the bookmaker are aug mented by sums paid on account of horses which have been backed and never run at all.
Americans Abroad.— In 1855 an American horse had never won a race abroad and an American jockey had never ridden in an Eng lish race. The first American to go to Eng land with a stable of thoroughbreds was Rich ard Ten Broeck, who sailed for England in 1856, taking with him Lexington, Lecompte, the only horse that ever beat Lexington; Pryor and Prioress. Lecompte died of influenza the first year, and Pryor soon followed. It was left for Prioress to retrieve the fortunes of the stable. Her great victory was in the Cesare witch, a rate at two miles, two furlongs and 28 yard's. There were 37 starters, the very best horses on the English turf. After one of the most exciting races ever run, Prioress, El Hakim and Queen Bess finished in a dead heat. In the run off, the American horse won by a length in four minutes and 15 seconds. Ameri can successes really began in 1878, when Pierre Lorillard and James R. Keene shipped stables to England. The former's Parole won the Newmarket Handicap, defeating the English favorite, Isonomy, a horse that was called the best ever foaled on English soil. The Ameri can gelding next took the great Metropolitan, the great Cheshire and the Epsom Gold Cup in quick succession. Iroquois followed Parole, winning four important stakes in 1880, in cluding the Saint Leger. The subsequent in vasion of England'by W. C. Whitney, Clarence A. Mackay, Richard Croker and others with famous winning horses, and the successes of Sloan, Reiff, Martin and other American jockeys, have brought renown to the American turf. In 1902, American horses ridden by Ametican jockeys took part in 561 races in England, of which they won 85, were second in 80, third in 52 and unplaced 344 times. The
stakes and purses won amounted to $234,120. Since 1903; the Americans have done even bet ter, proportionately, almost every year and their winnings have exceeded $1,000;000. American horses were second in the Oaks and third in the Derby. In /907, the Derby was won by a horse owned by an American.
Trotting.—The evolution of the trotting horse in Ametica, and the gradual reducing of the one mile record, is a history coincident with the imptovement and progress made in breed ing. Beginning with the record of Trouble, who trotted a mile in 2.43 in 1826, of Dutchman (2.32) in .1839 and Flora Temple (2.1944) in 1859, the evolution proceeds to Georu \\ Dexter, Goldsmith Maid and the others who followed. In 1818, at a Jockey Club dinner, dis cussion drifted to the trotter, and a wager was made that no horse could be produced which could trot a mile in three minutes. Boston Blue was named at the post by Maj. William Jones, and the old chronicle says that he "won cleverly and gained great renown." The New York Trotting Club was organized in 1825, for the purpose of improving the speed of road horses. The initial purses were for races of two-mile and three-mile heats. In 1835 trotting was in almost daily vogue in New York. It was not until 1845 that a mile was trotted in less than 2.30. In 1863, the American trotting horse was an unknown quantity abroad, while since 1903, American trotting stock has been in demand in Europe. Germans, French, Rus sians and Austrians have bought some of our best bred animals.
The National Trotting Association was formed in 1870 as a result of a meeting of breeders and track owners the previous year, In 1887 the American Trotting Association was formed with headquarters in Chicago, and it works with the National Trotting Association to detect and punish fraud. Some of the ablest men in the country sit on the boards of appeals, and the decisions command respect and are ac cepted as final. The careers and records of famous trotters like George Wilkes; Dexter; Harrietta; Axtell (2.12) ; Saint Julien (2.11%) ; Sunol (2.10%) ; Maud S. (2.08Y4); Kremlin ; Stamboul (2.0 ' 7%) ; Beuzetta (2. 4); Directum (2.05%) • Nancy Hanks (2.04 • Alix (2.0334); The Abbot (2.03%), and the mile of Major Delmar and of Ham burg Belle (2.00%) ,• Cresceus (1.5934) ; Lou Dillon (1.58%) and Uhlan (1.58), tell the story of the trotting horse in America. See also HORSES, TROTTING AND PACING.
Prominent owners of racing stables in the United States are H. P. Whitney. J. L. Hol land, H. G. Bedwell and J. 0. Talbott. The best performances on the American running turf are quarter mile, Bob Wade, 4 years, at Butte, 1890, 21%; three-eighths mile, Atoka, 103 pounds, Butte, 1906, .33%; half mile, Geraldine, 4 years, 122 pounds, Morris Park, 1889, .46; five-eighths mile, Maid Marian, 4 years, 111 pounds, Morris Park, 1894, .5634; six furlongs (Futurity), Kingston, 139 pounds, Sheepshead Bay, 1891, 1.08; Artful, 2 years, 130 pounds, Morris Park, 1904, 1.08; seven fur longs, Roseben, 5 years, 126 pounds, Belmont Park, 1906, 1.22; one mile, Salvator, 4 years, 110 pounds, against time, Monmouth Park, 1890, 1.35%; Stromboli, 3 years, 117 pounds, Belmont Park, 1914, 1.36 3/5; one and a quarter miles, Whisk Broom II, 6 years, 139 pounds, Belmont Park, 1913, 2.00; one and a half miles, Goodrich, 3 years, 102 pounds, Washington Park, Chicago, 1898, 2.30Y2; two miles,Fverett, 4 years, 107 pounds, Pimlico, Md., 1910, 3.25 3/5. The largest purse won in regular American events was the Futurity of 1904, $42,880, first lace won by Artful, six furlongs, in 1.11 4/5.
e highest purse in the Brighton Handicap is $21,750, which was offered in both 1904 and 1905, being won by Broomstick and Artful respectively. The Brooklyn Handicap's largest purse was $19,750, in 1908 when J. R. Keene's Celt won. The Suburban andicap paid $19,750 to the winners of 190S, when Keene's Ballot won. The Metropolitan Handicap's largest purse was $10,850, in 1906, Grapple being first. The Futurity is now the only race around New York where a large purse is given annually.
The English Derby, which has been run since 1788, over a course of about a mile and a half, shows the following records in recent years: For other racing records, see HORSE, TROT TING AND PACING.