19. THE JAPANESE ARMY. In 1868, the first year of Meiji, the ImperialJapanese Government was formed under the Emperor Meiji. It had seven departments, one of which was that of the navy and army. While the name of the department has been changed several times, naval and military officers have always formed one branch of the administra tion. In the year 1868, this department of the navy and army had come into the possession of the bureaus of the navy, army, construction. warships, ordnance, horse administration, mili tary school and military administration. Next year it had the addition of the bureaus of ac count and courts-Martial.
In 1871 military stations were established in Tokio, Tohoku, Osaka and Chinzei. At the same time took place the organization of the general staff bureau, naval school, shipbuilding office and other naval offices.
In 1872 the War Office was separated from the Navy Department and made an independent department. Two years later the number of military stations was increased from four to six and established at Tokio, Sendai. Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima and Kumamoto. At the time, however, the General Staff still formed a bu reau of the War Office.
In 1875 military arsenals were established in Tokio and Osaka. In 1876 the Artillery Council was organized. In 1878 the General Staff Office was separated from the War Office, there being added the hydrographic and kin dred offices, compilation, translation and sur vey, together with a library. Two years after ward a telegraph section was added to the General Staff Office.
In 1881 gendarmerie headquarters were es tablished in Tokio. In the following year a military staff college was established under the direction of the General Staff Office. In 1883 an Engineering Council was organized.
. In January 1882, an Imperial rescript was given by His Majesty to his army and navy as their mottoes: Concerning Loyalty, Courtesy, Bravery, Faith, and Thrift.
Meanwhile, the Department of Military Training being established, the affairs on train ing has gone under the Inspector-General of Military Training; the military administration, under the War Minister; and all the rest, un der the Chief of General Staff.
In 1886 a thorough reorganization of the War Office took place. It now consisted of the Minister's secretariates and bureaus of general affairs, cavalry, artillery, engineering, account and medical affairs. Toward the end of that year a special fortification department was or ganized.' In 1888 the military stations were converted into Division Headquarters. At this time, the War Office established the woolen factory now existing at Senju. In 1890 the Imperial Body guard Headquarters were organized.
During 1895 there existed, as an outcome of the Chino-Japanese War, a special quarantine department. In June, offices having charge of the construction of telegraphs and lighthouses in Formosa were established and ,a military of fice was organized under the direction of the governor-general of Formosa. .
In 1896 the number of army divisions in Japan was increased fropn 6 to 12, and Totoku fu (offices of General Superintendence) were created for the eastern, central and western sections of Japan.
In 1898 the Gensui-fu (Council of Field marshals and Fleet Admirals) and the Head quarters of Military Education were organized.
The War Office was reorganized in 1900, with new bureaus, viz., those of general affairs, per sonnel, military affairs, supply and justice. The Military Supply Depot was established in 1902.
In 1903 the Artillery and Engineering Coun cils were abolished. Branches of the Supply Depot were established at Ujina and Osaka. On 28 December of that year the Regulations of the Imperial Military Headquarters in Time of War and the Military Council were amended.
On 13 Jan. 1904, the Totoku-fu were abol ished. On 21 February, shortly after the out break of the war (1904), a bureau of informa tion relating to prisoners of war was established in Tokio. On 24 April the Tokio Garrison Headquarters were newly organized. On 23 June, a special military quarantine office was established in Tokio, and quarantine stations were opened in Ni-no-shima and Dairi in No vember.