Crucible steel was for the first time manu factured on a commercial scale in 1832 by the Garrard brothers in Cincinnati at their works called the Cincinnati Steel Works.
Hot blast for making pig iron was first used in the United States at the Oxford Furnace in New Jersey in 1834. Cast iron pipes were util ized being heated by the waste heat of the fur nace at the tymp. The temperature of the blast was raised to 250° F. and the output of pig iron increased by about 10 per cent. Later arched cast iron pipes were placed at the top of the stack and heated by the flame from the tunnel head, the temperature of the blast reaching by this means 500° F.
Coke as a blast furnace fuel was first suc cessfully used by Williams Firmstone at Mary Ann Furnace in Huntington County, Pa., in 1835.
In the same year Henry Burden of Troy, N. Y., patented machine-ma& horse shoes and in 1840 the Burden rotary squeezer.
Probably the first successful use in the States of anthracite in the blast furnace was by Benjamin Perry at the Pioneer Furnace at Pottsville. Pa., in 1839, and by David Thomas at the Lehigh Crane Iron Company at Catasau qua, Pa.
Iron ore was discovered in the Lake Supe rior region on 16 Sept. 1844 in northern Mich igan by William A. Burt, a deputy surveyor of the general government. The Jackson Mining Company was organized the following June at Jackson, Mich., and the ore from the Tackson Iron Mountain used in some neighboring blomnaries.
The manufacture of heavy iron rails was undertaken in 1844 at the Mount Savage Roll ing Mill in Allegany County, Md. Here also the first T rails rolled in the United States were manufactured, although it is claimed by some that this honor is due to the Montour kolling Mill of Danville, Pa. The production of iron rails was 21,712 tons in 1849. It reached its highest figure in 1872 when 808,866 tons were manufactured. In 1900 but 695 tons were rolled.
Bituminous coal was successfully used in blast furnaces in 1845 in a furnace located in Mercer County, Pa., and in 1846 in a furnace . expressly built for that purpose at Lowell, in Mahoning County, Ohio.
The first shipment of iron from Lake Supe rior was made in 1850 to New Castle, Pa.
Wire nails were first manufactured in the United States in 1852 by William Hassall at New York.
In 1852 David Thomas of Catasauqua, Pa., constructed for his furnace powerful blowing engines, thereby greatly increasing the blast pressure and increasing the output of pig iron. Lake Superior ore was first used in a blast furnace at the Sharpsville Furnace, Mercer County, Pa.
Rolled wrought iron beams were made in 1854 by Peter Cooper at Trenton, N. J.
In 1855 more pig iron was made with an thracite than with charcoal.
It is believed that 30-foot rails were first rolled at the Cambria Iron Works, Johnstown, Pa., in 1855.
In 1859 the first blast furnace was built in Allegheny County, Pa. It was known as the Clinton Furnace.
As late as 1860 there were about 200 Catalan forges or bloomaries, south of the Ohio and Potomac rivers, making bar iron directly from the ore and blown by the trompe or by wooden °tubs') operated by water power. At the end of the century but one of these was in operation.
In 1862 Samuel J. Reeves of the Phenix Iron Company, Pa., invented the wrought iron and steel columns now so widely used for bridges and many other structures.
Bessemer steel was first made in the United States by William F. Durfee in 1864 at Wyan dotte, Mich., by the Kelly Pneumatic process. Bessemer's steel patents were acquired in 1864 by John F. Winslow, John A. Griswold and Alexander L. Holley of Troy, N. Y. In Feb ruary 1865 Bessemer steel was successfully pro duced at Troy by Mr. Holley. The first Bes semer steel rails made in the United States were rolled in May 1865 at the Chicago Roll ing Mill.
In 1867 John A. Griswold and Company of Troy, N. Y., constructed the first generative Siemens gas furnace in the United States and used it as a heating furnace in their rolling mill.
In 1868, Cooper, Hewitt and Company built and put in operation, at their works of t'he New Jersey Steel and Iron Company, Trenton, N. J., the first open hearth furnace for the manufacture of steel.