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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 17

Liege
Liege, Le-azh, Belgium, (1) The Eastern Most Province Bordering On Rhenish Prussia And The Netherlands. Area, 1,117 Miles. The Surface Is Diversified With Heights Varying From 300 To 2,000 Feet And Well Wooded. It Contains Rich Coal And Iron Mines. The Northern Part Called Herveland Is Exceedingly Fertile And Highly ...

Lieutenant
Lieutenant, Hi- Or Leften'ant, A Mili Tary Term, Which, Like Captain And Many Others, Has Acquired Gradually A Much Narrower Mean Ing Than It Had Originally. Its True Meaning Is A Deputy, A Substitute, From The French Lieu (place, Post) And Tenant (holding). A Lieuten Ant-gineral Du Royaume Was A ...

Life
Life. No Definition Of Life Has Ever Proved Quite Satisfactory. Some Include Too Much, Others Omit Certain Phenomena, A Third Class Assumes Conditions Purely Hypothetical, While Many Are Unintelligible. Bichat Says That Life Is "the Sum Total Of The Forces That Resist Death"; Treviranus, That It Is "the Constant Uniformity ...

Life Boat
Life-boat, A Specific Type Of Boat De Signed Especially For Saving The Lives Of Persons On Ships Wrecked Near A Shore. It Must Be Con Structed With Strength Sufficient To Resist Violent Shocks From The Waves, The Rocky Beach Or Collision With The Wreck; Be Buoyant Enough To Avoid Foundering, ...

Life Extension
Life Extension. Among The Many Facts Which Have Been Revealed By The Investiga Tions Of Scientific Shop Management None Has Proved More Startling Than The Disclosure Of The Economic Waste Involved In The Sickness And Premature Death Of Skilled Workers In All In Dustries. While It May, At First Thought, ...

Life Is A Dream
Life Is A Dream Vida Es Sue No). Calderon's (life Is A Dream' Was Writ Ten About 1635 And Published In 1636. The Play Was Probably Composed For The Theatre Of The Royal Palace At Madrid. In Grandeur Of Con Ception, If Not In Style And Execution, It Is One ...

Life Rockets
Life-rockets Are Cylinders Of Metal Carrying A Small Projectile In Front And An Ex Plosive Mixture In The Rear For Propulsion And Arc So Framed Because Used To Communicate Be Tween A Distressed Ship And The Shore. These Are Especially Useful Where No Lifeboat Can Be Had, Or Where It ...

Life Saving Service
Life-saving Service, The United States, For Many Years An Important And Ef Fective Branch Of The Public Service, Under The Direction Of The Treasury Department, Lost Its Distinct Individuality On 28 Jan. 1915, When It Was Merged With The Revenue Cutter Service To Form The Coast Guard. The System Was ...

Life Of Jesus
Life Of Jesus, The De Jesus,' 1863), By Renan, Is The Effort Of An Oriental Scholar And Biblical Critic, Who Was Also A Subtle Psychologist, To Disengage The Gospel Narratives From What He Believed To Be Legendary Accre Tions And To Show The "incomparable Man" Jesus Not As A Founder ...

Light
Light, Velocity Of, The Rate At Which Light Is Propagated. This May Be Found Either From Astronomical Observations Or By Direct Terrestrial Measurements. Of The Former There Are Two Methods, The First By Observations Of The Satellites Of Jupiter And The Second By Measurement Of What Is Known As The ...

Light
Light. The Word Light Is Used In Two Distinct Senses, Namely, To Designate The Sensa Tion Which Is Characteristic Of The Organ Of Vision (q.v.), And Also As A Name For The Usual Cause Of That Sensation. This Double Meaning Of The Word Would Result In Little Inconvenience If There ...

Light And Shade
Light And Shade.* We Are Able To Distinguish Objects Owing To Our Ability To Dis Cern Differences In Brightness And In Hue Or Differences In Light, Shade And Color. If We Did Notpossess The Gift Of Color-vision The Magical Drapery Of Color Would Disappear And The Gray Of Dawn Would ...

Light Of Asia
Light Of Asia, The. The Story Of The Life And Teaching Of Gautama, Founder Of Bud Dhism, Was Published In 1879. Sir Edwin Arnold, Then Editor Of The London Telegraph, Had Gained Through Some Years Of Life In India And Study Of Its Literature The Interest In Its Thought And ...

Lighthouse
Lighthouse, A Structure On Some Con Spicuous Point Of Seashore, Island Or Rock, Or On The Bank Of Rivers And Lakes, From Which A Light Is Exhibited At Night As A Guide To Mariners. Lighthouses Are Generally Placed On Salient Points, Each Requiring Structures Specially Designed To Meet The Exigencies ...

Lighthouse Service Of The
Lighthouse Service Of The United States. Under The Act Of 17 June 1910 The Present General Organization Of The Service Is As Follows: The Commissioner Of Lighthouses And The Deputy Commissioner Pre Side Over An Office In Washington, D. C., Which Is The Executive Centre Of The Service. In This ...

Lightning And
Lightning And Franklin In 1751 Proved That Lightning Was Simply A Visible Display Of Electricity— An Ex Tended Spark; And Until A Generation Ago Little Was Added To His Exposition To Define The Differ Entia Of This Phenomena. The Origin Of Atmos Pheric Electricity Is Believed To Be Simple Fric ...

Lilburne
Lilburne, Ill'bern, John, English Sectary And Political Agitator: B. Thickney Puncharden, County Durham, About 1614; D. Eltham, Kent. 29 Aug. 1657. For Putting Forth Tracts Hostile To The Anglican Church He Was Whipped And Imprisoned In 1637, But Was Released By The Long Parliament In 1640, And His Conviction Having ...

Lille
Lille, Id, France, An Important Town, Capital Of The Department Of The Nord And Chief Fortress Of The North, 154 Miles North Of Paris And Seven Miles From The Frontier Of Belgium. It Is Well Built And Has Spacious, Regular Streets, Lined With Large, Massive Houses. In The North West ...

Lily
Lily. The Type Genus (lilium) Of Tile Family Liliacew (q.v.). The Several Hundred Well-marked Species Which Have Been Described Are Succulent Herbs With Scaly Bulbs And Usually Leafy Upright Stems Terminated By Solitary Or Variously Grouped Six-segmented Flowers Of Very Diverse Colors And Markings. In General, Lilies Are Among The ...

Lima
Lima, Peru, South American City, Capital Of The Department Of Lima, On The Rimac River, Seven Miles From The Pacific. Callao, On The Pacific, At The Mouth Of The Rimac, Is The Port Of Lima; It Is Connected With Lima By Two Railroads, One On Each Side Of The Rimac. ...

Lime
Lime, Also Known As Caustic Lime, Quick Lime Or Calcium Oxide (cao), Is Snow White In Color And Strongly Alkaline, Being One Of The Strongest Bases. In Contact With Water, For Which It Has Great Affinity, It Increases In Bulk, Evolves Much Heat And Changes To The Hydrate Unless Kept ...

Limerick
Limerick, Lim'e-rik, Ireland, A City And Civic County, Capital Of Limerick County, At The Interior Extremity Of The Estuary Of The Shannon, 120 Miles By Rail Southwest Of Dub Lin. It Consists Of Three Portions Connected By Five Bridges, English Town On King's Island, And Irish Town And Newtown Perry ...

Limestone
Limestone, A Common And Widely Dis Tributed Rock, Consisting Essentially Of Car Bonate Of Lime And Varying Greatly In Com Position, Color And Texture. Most Limestones Are Of Organic Origin And Represent The Calcare Ous Remains Of Sea Animals, Such As Corals, Foraminifera And Mollusks. These Remains May Be Reduced ...

Limitation Of Actions
Limitation Of Actions, A Legal Limitation To The Period Within Which Actions May Be Brought, Varying Usually In The United States From 6 Years Or Less To 20 Years. The Sound Policy Of Placing A Reasonable Limit To The Time Within Which Actions Might Be Brought Was Early Recognized In ...

Limited Liability
Limited Liability, In Modern Stat Ute Law, A Principle Whereby The Persons Liable Are Bound Under Certain Clearly Defined Condi Tions. The Phrase Is Chiefly Used In Connection With Stock Companies, Meaning That The Stock Holders Shall Not Be Called Upon, Under Any Cir; Cumstances, To Contribute More Than The ...

Limoges
Limoges, Le-mozh, France, An Episcopal City, Capital Of The Department Of Haute Vienne, Situated On A Hill Sloping To The Vienne, Here Crossed By Three Bridges, 88 Miles West Of Clermont. The Streets Arc Narrow And Tor Tuous; But The Fortified Walls Which Sur Rounded The Town Have Been Replaced ...

Limpet
Limpet, A Gastropod Mollusk, With A Low, Conical, Non-spiral Shell; Properly A Representa Tive Of The Families Patellidce And Actnceidce. The Former Has No Ctenidia Or True Gills, But Breathe By Means Of A Ring Of Special •ranchial Filaments Between The Mantle And The Foot; In The Latter The Left ...

Lincoln
Lincoln, Benjamin, American General: B. Hingham, Mass., 24 Jan. 1733; D. There, 9 May 1810. Until The Age Of 40 He Followed The Calling Of A Farmer, Holding Also At Different Times The Offices Of Magistrate, Representative In The Provincial Legislature And Colonel Of Militia. He Was Also An Active ...

Lincoln
Lincoln, Abraham, 16th President Of The United States: B. In A Rude Farm Cabin Near Hodgensville, Ky., 12 Feb. 1809; D. Washington, D. C., 15 April 1865. The Birthplace Is Marked By A Memorial Structure Dedicated On His Hundredth Anniversary. He Was The First Son And Second Child Of Thomas ...

Lincoln Highway
Lincoln Highway, A Continuous Connecting Improved Road, The Backbone Of A National Highway System, Crossing The Conti Nent Through The Heart Of The Most Densely Populated Regions Between New York And San Francisco. The Highway Was Laid Out By The Lincoln Highway Association, A Michigan Cor Poration With Headquarters At ...

Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D. C. Erected In Potomac Park On The Axis Of The United States Capitol And The Washington Monument, Was Commenced On Lincoln's Birth Day 12 Feb. 1914. The Foundation Was Com Pleted And The Cornerstone Laid 12 Feb. 1915. This Beautiful Memorial Was Erected In Accord Ance ...

Lincoln Memorial Univer Sity
Lincoln Memorial Univer Sity, A Coeducational Institution, At Cumber Land Gap, In Claiborne County, Tenn., Char Tered In 1897, Largely Through The Efforts Of Gen. 0. 0. Howard, Of Burlington, Vt., Who Desired To See A School Established In Some Place Easy Of Access For The Mountaineers Of This Locality, ...

Lincoln_2
Lincoln, England, An Episcopal City, Civic County And Parliamentary And Municipal Borough, The Capital Of Lincolnshire, On The Witham, At The Junction Of Several Railroads, 130 Miles North Of London. It Dates From Pre Norman Times, Was The Roman "lindum Colons,'" And At The Time Of The Norman Con Quest ...

Lind
Lind, Jenny (madame Goldsch Midi) , Swedish Singer: B. Stockholm, 6 Oct. 1820; D. Malvern, England, 2 Nov. 1887. In Very Early Childhood She Displayed The Faculty For Tune And Of Musical Memory In Such Degree As To Attract Observation And At Nine Her Voice Was Considered So Remarkable That ...

Line
Line, Mathematical. In Geometry, A Line May Be Defined (1) As The Locus Described By A Moving Point; (2) As A Magnitude Which, At Each Of Its Points, Has Extension In One Direction Only; (3) As The Boundary Which Separates Two Contiguous Parts Of A Surface; Or (4) As The ...

Linen
Linen, A Cloth Of Very Extensive Use, Made Of Flax, And Differing From Cloths Made Of Hemp Only In Fineness. Hemp Is In Part Now Used In Manufacturing Cloths Which Are Called Linen. The Flax From Which Linen Is Made Is Put Through A Number Of Processes Previous To Manufacture; ...

Linn Us
Linn. Us, Carolna, The Latinized Form Of The Name Of Carl Von Linne, Swedish Botanist : B. Rashult, Smiland, 23 May 1707; D. Upsala, 10 Jan. 1778. He Showed An Early In Terest In Botany; Entered The University Of Lund, Where His Botanical Tastes Were Encour Aged By Kilian Stoixtus, ...

Linnet
Linnet, A Very Common And Attractive Song-bird, One Of The Smaller Migratory Finches, Of Southern Europe And Adjacent Countries Of Africa And Asia. In Autumn And Winter The Plumage Is Brown-streaked And Dull, But In The Spring Molt; On The Approach Of The Breed Ing Season, The Breast And Head ...

Linseed Oil Industry
Linseed Oil Industry, The. In The Commercial World There Are Known At The Present Time A Number Of Vegetable Oils, Which In The Raw State And Without The Aid Of Chemi Cals Are Capable Of Absorbing The Oxygen Of The Air To A Greater Or Less Degree And Becom Ing ...

Lion
Lion, The Largest And Most Celebrated Of The Cat Tribe, Forming The Widespread Species Fells Leo. The Outward Form And Appearance Of The Lion Are Familiar. The Apparently Ex Cessive Size Of The Head, Due Chiefly To The Great Mane Which Covers The Head, Neck And Shoulders Of The Males; ...

Lion In Art
Lion In Art. With The Ancient Egyp Tians The Lion Was Dedicated To The God Shu And The Goddess Sechmet, Both Of Which Were, Therefore, Represented With The Heads Of Lions. Again, The Kingly Dignity Was Represented By A Lion's Body, Its Head Being The Features Of The Ruler. As ...

Lion Of Flanders
Lion Of Flanders, The. Lion Of Flanders) By Henri Conscience (1813-83), Written In The Early Years Of His Career (1838), Represents On The Artistic Side The Maximum Of His Achievement. His Father Was One Of That Amazing Train Of French Adventurers Who Seem To Have Been Called Forth To Follow ...

Lippi
Lippi, Fra Filippo Del Carmine, Fri Fe-lep'p6 Del Kar-me'ra Lep'pe, Italian Painter: B. Florence, 1406; D. Spoleto, 9 Oct. 1469. In His 15th Year He Entered The Carmelite Monas Tery At Florence And Became A Professed Monk In 1421, To Which Calling He Had No Vocation. Early Formed His Style ...

Liquefaction Of Gases
Liquefaction Of Gases. It Has Been Long Known That Most Solids Can Be Trans Formed Into Liquids By The Application Of Heat, And That Many Liquids Can Also Be Transformed Into Vapor By A Further Addition Of Heat. Con Versely, It Was Known That Certain Aeriform Substances, Such As Steam, ...

Liquefied And Compressed Gases
Liquefied And Compressed Gases. Introductory Statement.— Matter, That Is All Physical Substance, Commonly Is Understood To Exist In Three Forms, Solid, Liquid And Gaseous. Under Ordinary Conditions This Is A True Concept But It Is Not Generally Appreciated That In Reality Matter May Be Changed From One Form To Another, ...

Liquid Fire
Liquid Fire, The Eflammenwerfera Or Aflame Was First Employed By The Germans In The European War, 1914-18. It Re Sembles A Fire Extinguisher And Is Hung On The Back Of The Soldier While An Extension That Is Held In The Hands Throws The Flames. The Cylinder Contains Oil And Compressed ...

Liquor Legislation
Liquor Legislation. The Exces Sive Use Of Intoxicating Liquors Has Been, In All Ages Of Human History Down To Our Own Times, A Serious Problem For Those Charged With The Government Of Tribes Or Nations. For Thou Sands Of Years Legislators Have Endeavored With More Or Less Success To Control ...

Liquor And The Liquor
Liquor And The Liquor Traf Fic. The Term Liquor Is Applied To Alcoholic Or Spirituous Fluids Whether Distilled Or Fer Mented. The First Of These Include Wine And Liquor Made From The Juice Of Fruits And In Which The Natural Sugar Is Converted Into Alco Hol By Exposure To The ...

Lisbon
Lisbon, Portugal, The Capital And Prin Cipal Seaport, Beautifully Situated On The Right Bank Of The Tagus, Where The River Expands Itself Out Into A Lake, About Nine Miles Above Its Mouth. It Is Built On A Succession Of Hills, Rising From The Quays In The Form Of An Amphi ...

Lister
Lister, Joseph (basox Lister), Eng Lish Physician, The Founder Of Aseptic Surgery: B. Upton, Essex, 5 April 1827; D. Walmer, 10 Feb. 1912. The Son Of A Member Of The Society Of Friends Who Was Engaged In Business In London As A Wine Merchant, He Was Educated For His Profession ...

Liszt
Liszt, Franz, Frants List, Hungarian Pianist And Composer: B. Raiding, Near Oden Burg, Hungary, 22 Oct. 1811; D. Baireuth, 31 July 1886. He Was Scarcely Nine Years Of Age When He Made His First Appearance As A Pianist And Improvisator In Odenburg And Presburg With Such Success That Several Noblemen ...

Litany
Litany (from The Greek Litaneia, Sup Plication, Prayer), A Form Of Prayer Or Song, First Used Especially On Occasions Of Public Ca Lamity And Introduced According To Zonaras And Nicephorus By Proclus, About The Year 446, At Constantinople, In The Reign Of Theodosius; According To Paulus Under Justinian, At Antioch, ...

Literature
Literature (in Latin, Litteratura, Literatura, Writing, From Littera, Letter), In The Widest Sense Is The Expression, Representation Or Manifestation Of Thought By Means Of Alphabetic Symbols Called Letters — The Products Being Considered As A Collective Body, Without Special Regard To The Excellence And Beauty Of The Farm Of Expression. ...

Literature
Literature, Comparative. 1. History And Development Of Study.— Comparative Literature Is A Term That Only Within The Last 30 Years Has Come Into Prominence, But Is Applied To So Many Different Fields And Lines Of Research That It Would Be Difficult To Find Two Scholars Who Would Agree Absolutely On ...

Lithium
Lithium, A Name Applied To An Alkali Discovered In The Year 1817. Lithia Has Since Been Detected In Spodumene, Lepidolite, Triphy Lite, Amblygonite, Tourmaline, Meteoric Stones, Mineral Waters, Coffee, Tea, Blood, Milk, Etc. A Process For Procuring It Is The Following: One Part Of Petalite Or Spodumene In Fine Powder ...

Lithography
Lithography. (greek Lithos, "stone," And Graphein, "to Write"), May Be Divided Into Two Distinct Branches — The Art Of Writing, Drawing Or Engraving On Stone, And The Process Of Chemical Or Surface Printing From Stone Or Metal, By Means Of Which Such Writings, Drawings Or Engravings Are Multiplied, In A ...

Lithuania
Lithuania, Lith'fi-vni-a. (letuva), A Region In Eastern Europe Situated Between 52° 30 And 57° 45' N. And 20° 50' And 28° 20' E. About 63,000 Square Miles Of Lithuania Proper Belonged (in 1914) To Russia And Formed The Governments Of Grodno, Minsk, Moghiler, Vilna And Vitebsk; While About 6,500 Square ...

Lithuanian Language And Lit
Lithuanian Language And Lit Erature, The Lithuanian Language Is More Ancient Than Greek, Latin, German, Celtic And The Slav Tongues. It Belongs To The Indo European Group And Is The Nearest Idiom To Sanskrit. The Resemblance, Indeed, Is So Close That Lithuanian Peasants Can Understand Sans Krit Sentences Pronounced By ...

Little Old World
Little Old World, The Mondo Antico,) 18%), The Undoubted Master Piece Of The Italian Writer, Antonio Fogazzaro, And One Of The Greatest Novels Of Modern Italy, Is The First Of A Trilogy, The Other Two Volumes Of Which Are Mondo Modern& (1901) And Santo) (1905). Known In. English As The ...

Little Rock
Little Rock, Capture Of. The State Authorities Of Arkansas Seized The United States Arsenal At Little Rock 8 Feb. 1861, And Until 10 Sept. 1863 The City Remained In Confederate Occupation. After The Fall Of Vicksburg And Port Hudson, 4 And 8 July 1863, Gen. F. Steele Was Ordered From ...