MACKENZIE, Alexander, Canadian states man: b. Logierait, Perthshire, Scotland, 28 Jan. 1822; d. Toronto, Ontario, 17 April 1892. He emigrated to Canada in 1842. For five years he worked at the trade of a stonemason at Kingston, hut then removed to Sarnia, where he became a contractor. But his chief interests were political, not commercial. In 1852 he be gan the publication of the Lambton Shield, and -soon becanie conspicuous as one of the Liberal leaders. He entered the Canadian Par liament in 1861, and after the Confederation of Canada, in 1867, sat both in the Ontario legis lature at Toronto and in the Dominion Parlia ment at Ottawa. When Edward Blake (q.v.) became Prime Minister of Ontario in 1871 Mac kenzie ioined his cabinet and became Provincial Treasurer, but in consequence of the passing of a law forbidding membership of more than one legislature, he elected in 1872 to sit in the Dominion Parliament. In 1873, when the gov
ernment of Sir John Macdonald was over thrown, Mackenzie, now the leader of the Lib eral party, became Prime Minister of Canada and held office for five years. His administra tion of public affairs was marked by rigid in tegrity. He himself took the great spending Department of Public Works, and eontraotors found in him a vigilant watchdog of the treas ury. His too great devotion to the details of his office broke down his health. In 1878 his gov ernment was defeated by the advocates of pro tection, and in 1880 he was obliged by ill-health to hand over the leadership of the Liberal party to Mr. Blake. Though he remained in Parlia ment for some years he was never again able to take a prominent part in public affairs.