MARTINSBURG, maritinz-berg, W. Va., city, county-seat of Berkeley County, on the Cumberland Valley and the Baltimore and Ohio railroads, about 65 miles northwest of Wash ington, D. C. It is in the vicinity of valuable stone quarries and forests which furnish tim ber for many mills. The chief manufactures are hosiery, woolen goods, lime, wagons, lum ber and canned goods. The repair shops of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and slate and limestone quarries furnish employment for a number of people. The chief buildings are the government building, the Berkeley Female Sem inary, the Berkeley Female Institute and the King's Daughters' Hospital. The waterworks are owned and operated by the municipality. The government is vested in a mayor and coun cil chosen biennially. It was incorporated in 1778. Pop. 12,032. Martinsburg, as the chief city of the lower Shenandoah Valley, on the main road leading across the Potomac, the con verging point of several roads, with the Balti more and Ohio Railroad running through it, was an important point in the military opera tions of the valley. Early in July 1861 General Patterson, after a slight skirmish, occupied the place, the Confederates falling back to Win chester. Patterson soon abandoned it, and it was reoccupied by the Confederates. Early in March 1862 it was again occupied by the Union forces under General Banks, the Confederates falling back up the valley. It was abandoned 25 May 1862, after Banks' defeat at Winches ter, but soon reoccupied by Banks. On 8 Sept. 1862 Gen. Julius White was in command of the place with about 2,500 men of all arms. At this time General Lee had crossed the Poto mac and was at Frederick, Md. On the 10th Jackson led a column from Frederick, crossed the Potomac at Williamsport and moved on Martinsburg. White retreated during the night of the llth to Harper's Ferry. In June 1863, when Ewedl's corps moved down the valley in the Gettysburg campaign the place was held by Col. B. F. Smith with 1,200 infantry and a bat tery. On 13 June, Ewell, at Cedarville, de tached Jenkins' cavalry brigade and Rodes' in fantry division to surround and capture the Union forces at Berryville and Martinsburg. Both garrisons escaped, Smith, with the greater part of his infantry, crossed the Potomac at Shepherdstown and making his way to Mary land Heights. The battery retreated by the Williamsport road, was pursued and lost five of its six guns, with 200 infantry accompany ing it. On 1 July 1864 the place was held by
General Sigel with about 3,200 infantry and dis mounted cavalry and a battery. On the 2d, Early arrived at Winchester on his campaign to menace Washington and, under General Lee's instructions, to clear out the lower valley and wreck the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Parties were sent north and west against the railroad, and on the 3d Bradley T. Johnson, with a cavalry brigade, was ordered to move through Smithfield and Lee Town, cross the railroad at Kearnysville, east of Martinsburg, and, push ing north, unite with McCausland at Haines ville beyond Martinsburg. Johnson arrived at Lee Town early in the morning, where he was met by Col. J. A. Mulligan with about 2,000 men and a battery, and after a hard fight was driven back on the divisions of Rodes and Ram seur, which were supporting him. Breckin ridge's division, which marched on the main road to Martinsburg, drove before it Stahel's cavalry, on outpost at Darkesville. Sigel, warned of approaching danger, burned his stores, collected his command, and, leaving Mar tinsburg on the night of the 3d, crossed the Potomac at Shepherdstown and occupied Mary land Heights. Early cleared the valley and ad vanced on Washington, and on the 1 1 th Mar tinsburg was occupied by Sullivan's division of Hunter's command, and remained in Union oc cupation until the 25th, when Crook, being de feated by Early at Kernstown, was driven through Winchester, made a short stand at Martinsburg and recrossed the Potomac at Williamsport, Early again occupying the town and destroying the railroad on either side of it, and continuing in possession until 10 August, when, upon Sheridan's advance to Halltown, he abandoned Martinsburg and Winchester and fell back to Strasburg. He advanced from Stras burg on the 17th and reoccupied Martinsburg on the 19th with his cavalry. From this time until 17 September the place was held alter nately by Union and Confederate cavalry, on the 17th by Averell's Union division. On that day Early left Winchester with a heavy force of infantry, cavalry and artillery, and on the 18th attacked and drove Averell from Martins burg across the Opequon. Sheridan defeated Early on the Opequon on the 19th, and drove him up the valley, and Martinsburg was again occupied by Union troops, to remain in their possession until the close of the war.