MASPERO, Sra Gaston Camille Charles, gas-ton ka-mel sharl mas-p'e-ro, French Egyp tologist: b. Paris, 23 June 1846; d. 30 June 1916. He studied in the Lycee Louis-le-Grand, 1853-65, and before entering the Ecole Normale in 1865 had already made considerable progress in the study of Egyptology. He remained in the latter college two years and attracted the attention of Mariette, the distinguished Egypt ologist. In 1867 he published in the Revue Archtologique an Egyptian text and transla tion under the title 'Stele du Songe,' and in the same year appeared separately his (Memoire sur la grande Inscription d'Abydos et la Jeunesse de Sesostris.' On leaving the Ecole Normale he went to South America to carry out researches in the Quichua language. Further memoirs on ancient Egypt extended his reputation and se cured his appointment in 1869 as professor of the Egyptian language and archaology at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes. In 1871 he issued an important essay, 'Des Formes de la conju gaison en Egyptien ancien, en demotique et en copte' ; and in 1873 'De Carchemis Oppidi Situ et Historia antiquissima' and 'Du genre epis tolaire chez les anciens Egyptiens. In 1874 he succeeded Rouge as professor of Egyptian philology and archaeology at the College de France. Sent to Egypt in 1880 as head of a government archaeological mission, he succeeded Marieue in the following year in the director ship of excavations and antiquities, He founded and directed an archaeological insti tute at Cairo, had charge of the museum at Bulak, now in Gizeh, carried out many excava tions, with important results, and in 1886 re turned to France to resume his duties at the college. In 1899 he again went to Egypt as director of excavations and antiquities. In 1914 he left Egypt and became permanent secretary of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres. Maspero's great work is his
(Histoire ancienne des Peuples de l'Orient' (1875), which has been republished in an en larged and revised form (1894-99). The three volumes of the later edition have been trans lated into English under the titles 'The Dawn of Civilization' (1894), 'The Struggle of the Nations' (1896) and 'The Passing of the pires' (1900). His other works comprise the following: (Contes populaires de l'Egypte ancienne ) (1883), translated by him; 'Etudes Egyptiennes' (1886-91); (Archeologie Egyp tienne' (1::7; Eng. trans. (Egyptian Archaeol ogy,' 1888) ; (Lectures historiques' (1890; Eng. trans., 'Life in Ancient Egypt and As syria,' 1892) ; de Mythologie et d'Archeologie Egyptiennes' (1893), invaluable to the student of the religion of ancient Egypt; besides contributions to the (Me moires' of the French Archaeological Mission at Cairo; (Les momies royales de Deir-el BaharP (1889); 'Causeries d'Egypte' (1907; Eng. trans., as (New Light on Ancient Egypt,' 1909) ; 'Egypt, Ancient Sites and Modem Scenes' (1911) ; 'Art in Egypt' (1912), and text and translations of the inscriptions upon the pyramids of the fifth and sixth dynasties in Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie et parcheologie egyptiennes et assyriennes (Vols. I—XIV), etc. In 1879 Maspero was made a knight of the Legion of Honor, and in 1895 commander. In 1883 he became a member of the Academie des Inscriptions, and in 1887 an honorary Fellow of Queen's College, Ox ford, and an honorary D.C.L. of that university. In 1909 he was made knight commander of Saints Michael and George. See EGYPTOLOGY.