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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 19

Mino Da Fibsole
Mino Da Fibsole, Mee-no Dah Fee-ay So-lay, Florentine Sculptor: B. Popi In The Cosentino In 1431; D. Florence, 11 ,july 1484. His Real Name Was Mino Di Giovanni. He Be As A Stonecutter For Desiderio Da Who Always Remained His Master And Friend. His Home Was Florence, But He Worked ...

Minor
Minor, A Musical Term Applied To Inter Vals And Modes (or Scales). I. Interval: For Purposes Of Art Certain Relative Distances Of Height And Lowness Have To Be Definitely Deter Mined And Maintained. The Sounds So Chosen Are Notes Of The System And The Distances Be Tween Them Are Intervals. ...

Minorca
Minorca, (sp. Menorca, Mi Niwka), An Island In The Mediterranean, Be Longing To Spain, The Second Largest Of The Balearic Group; Greatest Length, Northwest To Southeast, 35 Miles; Average Breadth, About 10 Miles; Area, 260 Square Miles, And With Depend Ent Islands 293 Square Miles. It Is Situated Northeast Of ...

Minority And Proportional Representation
Minority And Proportional Representation. Under Prevailing Election Methods The Views Of Large Numbers Of Voters Are Not Represented By Men Of Their Choosing. Minority Parties Get A Voice In Legis Lative Assemblies Only By The Haphazard Pre Ponderance Of Their Members In A Few Localities. In Every Voting District That ...

Mint
Mint, A Genus Of Perennial Herbs (men Tha) Of The Family Menthacee. Many Species Have Been Described, Of Which 12 Are Either Native Or Naturalized In America, Character Ized By Square Stems, Opposite Simple Leaves, Small, Purple, White Or Pink, Two-lipped, Axillary Flowers, In Whorls Which Often Form Terminal Spikes. ...

Mint
Mint, A Government Establishment For The Coining Of Lawful Metallic Money. The United States Mint Was Established In 1791, And Re Mained An Independent Department Of The Federal Government Until 1873, When It Became Subordinate To The Treasury Department Under The Title Of 'the Bureau Of The Mint?' This Bureau ...

Minucius Felix
Minucius Felix, Marcus, Probably The Earliest Latin Apologist Of Christianity. Al Though He Is Mentioned By Lactantius And Saint Jerome, Practically Nothing Is Known Of His Life Except What May Be Gathered From His One Known Work,
Mira
Mira, Mi'ra Or Mem Or Stella Mira. (the Wonderful Star), In Astronomy, The Star Omicron Ceti, A Remarkable Variable, Situated In The Neck Of ((the Whale." Its Variability Wail Discovered In 1596 By Fabricus. The Period Is Somewhat Irregular, But Averages About 331 Days. During The Greater Part Of This ...

Mirabeau
Mirabeau, Gabriel Honore Riquetti, Gi-bre-el 6-n6-r3 Re-ket-te Or Milli Up, Comm De, French Orator And Revolutionary Leader: B. Bignon, Near Nemours, 9 March 1749 D. Paris, 2 April 1791. In 1767 He En Tered The Berry Cavalry Regiment, Was Pro Moted 2d Lieutenant, But On Account Of Miscon Duct Was ...

Miracle Plays
Miracle Plays. The Earliest Dramatic Representations Of Religious Themes Grew Up Within The Church Itself. At Certain Seasons Of The Year, Tableaux Of Gospel Scenes Were Shown To The People, A Practice Which Still Survives In The Representations •of The Nativity In Modem Catholic Churches. The Introduction Of Action And ...

Miracles
Miracles, Works Which Excite Wonder, Because They Are Beyond Ordinary Human Ex Perience And Appear To Contravene The Known Laws Of Nature. The Well-known Argument Of Hume Against The Credibility Of A Miracle Has Often Been Re Futed. A Miracle, He Said, Was Contrary To Ex Perience, But False Witnesses ...

Mirage
Mirage, Mt-rlith', The Name Given To Cer Tain Illusory Appearances Due To The Bending Of Rays Of Light M The Atmosphere. The Earliest Attempt To Explain The Mirage Seems To Be That Of Monge, Who Accompanied Bonaparte's Egyp Tian Expedition; He Thus Describes What Was Ob Served By The French ...

Mirbrau
Mirbrau, Me'b5, Octave Henri Marie, French Novelist And Playwright: B. Trevieres (calvados), 16 Feb. 1850. He Was Educated In A Jesuit School At Vannes, Studied Law In Paris And Became Dramatic Critic On The Bona Partist Paper, L'ordre. For A Time He Was Sous-prifet And Then Prefet Of Saint-girons; But ...

Mirkhond
Mirkhond, Merldftd, Haman Ed Din, Persian Historian: B. 1433; D. 1498. He Was The Son Of A Pious And Learned Man Of An Old Bokhara Sayyid Family, Direct Descendants Of Mohammed. From An Early Age He Devoted Himself To 1.istory And Literature; And In Herat, Where He Spent The Greater ...

Mirror
Mirror,. A Smooth Surface Usually Of Glass, Capable Of Regularly Reflecting Rays Of Light. A Mirror May Be (1) A Polished Surface Of Glass; (2) A Surface Of Tin-foil On The Fur Ther Side Of A Sheet Of Glass (as In The Common Looking-glass); (3) The Surface Of A Deposited ...

Mirror Of Perfection
Mirror Of Perfection, The, Is A Most Intimate And Exceedingly Illuminating Ac Count Of The Son Of Peter Bernardone, Cloth Merchant Of Assisi. Christened John He Was Nicknamed By His Father "francisco* And Is Known To The World By No Other Name Than That Of Saint Francis Of Assisi. The ...

Mirza
Mirza, Husain All Nutt Persian Reli Gious Reformer: B. Mazadran, Persia, 12 Nov. 1817; D. Aldca, 28 May 1892. He Was Of Noble Family, Joined The Bahai Movement In 1850 And Was Imprisoned During The Fierce Political And Religious Persecutions Which The Sect Suffered Shortly After. The Death Of Mirza ...

Misanthrope
Misanthrope, Le, Le Mezaietrop', A Comedy Of Moliere In Five Acts In Verse, Pre Sented For The First Time In The Theatre Of The Palais-royal, 4 June 1666, When The Author Was 44 Years Old. Moliere Played The Title-role And His Wife The Part Of Celimene. This Play, Which Is ...

Miseno
Miseno, Ma-sa'nep, Cape, Italy, A Promon Tory Forming The West Side Of The Bay Of Poz Zuoli (ancient Cumw), 10 Miles Southwest Of Naples. On It Are The Ruins Of The Ancient City Of Misenum, Destroyed By The Saracens, 890 A.d., Which Augustus Made One Of The Principal Naval Stations ...

Misrule
Misrule, Lord Of, A Whimsical Title Given To The Leader Of The Christmas Revels In The Middle Ages. He Is A Descendant Of The King Of The Ancient Roman Saturnalia Who Im Personated Saturn. His Duties Were To Lead The Multifarious Revels Of The Season; Or, In Other Words, To ...

Missions
Missions, Protestant Foreign. Foreign Missions Were Not Seriously Undertaken By Prot Estants Until More Than 200 Years After The Ref Ormation. This Curious Fact Is Sufficiently Ex Plained By The Circumstances That The Reformers Were Involved At The Outset In A Struggle Not Only For Liberty But For Life Itself ...

Mississippi
Mississippi, One Of The Southern United States And The Seventh Admitted To The Original Union, Situated Between Lat. 30° 13' And 35° N. And Long. :•:° 7' And 91° 41' W.; Extreme Length, North And South, 332' Miles; Average Breadth, 142 Miles, Varying From 78 Miles Below Lat. 31° N., ...

Mississippi Bubble
Mississippi Bubble, A Celebrated Financial Scheme Projected By John Law (q.v.) At Paris In 1717. Law Issued Shares For A Vast Company To Be Called The Compagnie D'occi Dent, And To Be Engaged In The Colonization And Cultivation Of The Banks Of The Mississippi. Re Ports Skilfully Spread As To ...

Mississippi River
Mississippi River (ind. Missi Sepe, °father Of Waters," °great The Main Stem Of The Greatest Drainage System Of North America, And One Of The Greatest In The World (1,257,000 Square Miles) ; Draining The Entire Western Slope Of The Alleghany-appalachian Range, And All The Eastern Slope Of The United States ...

Missoula
Missoula, Mi-zoo-la, Mont., City, County Seat Of Missoula County, Situated On Both Sides Of The Missoula River, A Tributary Of The Columbia River, In A Beautiful And Fer Tile Valley, Called By The Early Settlers Hell Gate Ronde, On The Main Line Of The Northern Pacific And The Chicago, Milwaukee ...

Missouri
Missouri, A River In The United States, The Largest Tributary Of The Mississippi. Its Headwaters Are In Southwestern Montana, And The Missouri River Proper Begins At The Con •fluence Of The Jefferson, Madison And Rivers. The Madison Has Its Source In Yellow Stone Park, Near The Headwaters Of Yellow Stone ...

Missouri
Missouri, Mi-eoo'rl, State Of The North American. Union, Geographically• The Central Commonwealth Of Continental United States. Sometimes Called A Southern State And Again A Western, State, It Is • Neither Southern Nor Western, In History, Population Nor Location. Though It Extends Farther South Than Virginia, It Extends Farther North Than ...

Missouri_2
Missouri, University Of, A Higher Edu Cational Institution Established By An Act Of The General Assembly Of The State Of Missouri, Ap Proved 11 Feb. 1839, Two Days After The Ap Proval Of The Act Establishing The Public School System Of The State. In June Of The Same Year The ...

Mistletoe
Mistletoe, A Popular Name For Several Related Shrubs Parasitic Upon Various Deciduous Trees, Such As Apple, Thorn, Maple, Poplar, Locust, Linden, But Rarely Oak. The European Or Com Mon Mistletoe (viscum Album) Of The Natural Order Loranthacete, Is The One Referred To In Poetry And Prose But A Relative Named ...

Mitannians
Mitannians, A Race Dwelling In Meso Potamia In The 2d Millenium S.c And That Came To Light By The Discovery Of Some Cuneiform Tablets Found In The Rock Tombs Of Tell-el Amarna In Upper Egypt (between Memphis And Thebes) In 1::7-88. These Clay Tablets Contained Egyptian Correspondence With Babylonia, Assyria ...

Mitau
Mitau, M'tou Mitava), Russia, Town And Capital Of The Government Of Cour Land, On The Right Bank Of The River Aa, 26 Miles Southwest Of Riga, On The Riga-orel Railroad. The Town Is Supposed To Have Received Its Name From The German Mine In, Der Aue And Is Said To ...

Mitchel
Mitchel, John Purroy, American Public Official: B. Fordham, N. Y., 19 July 1879; D. Near Lake Charles, La. 6 July 1918. His Grandfather Was The Irish Patriot, John Mitchel, Who With His Three Sons Fought In The Confederate Army During The Civil War. John Purroy Was Educated At Fordham College ...

Mitchel_2
Mitchel, Ormsby Mcknight, American Astronomer: B. Morgansfield, Ky., 10 July 1810; D. Hilton Head, S. C., 30 Oct. 1862 He Was Graduated From West Point In 1829, And Was Made Assistant Professor Of Mathematics There, Which Post He Held For Two Years. From 1832 To 1834 He Was Counsellor-at-law In ...

Mitchell
Mitchell, Chides, English Pugilist: B. Birmingham, 1861; D. Hove, Near Brigh Ton, April 191& He First Took To Fencing, Of Which Science He Became A Teacher Be Fore He Was 20. Adding Boxing To His Reper Tory, He Had Passed Through Several Successful Bouts With Amateurs Until He Distinguished Him ...

Mitchell_2
Mitchell, John, American Labor Leader: B. Braidwood, Will County, Ill., 4 Feb. 1870. He Entered The Mines At Braidwood At The Age Of 13, And In 1885 Joined The Knights Of Labor. The Next Few Years He Spent Coal Mining In Different States Of The West And Southwest, And In ...

Mitchell_3
Mitchell, Maria, American Astronomer: B. Nantucket, Mass., 1 Aug. 1818; D. Lynn, Mass., 28 June 1889. She Was The Daughter Of William Mitchell (q.v.), An Astronomer Of Some Note, And When A Girl Frequently Assisted Him In His Observations. She Taught For A Time In A Private School, And Was ...

Mitchell_4
Mitchell, Silas Weir, American Physi Cian, Inventor Of The "rest Cure,' Poet And Novelist : B. Philadelphia, 15 Feb. 1829; D. 4 Jan. 1914. He Studied At The University Of Pennsylvania, Was Graduated From Jefferson Medical College In 1850, Entered Practice In Philadelphia, During The Civil War Was In Charge ...

Mitchell_5
Mitchell, Ste Thomas Livingstone, Scottish Explorer: B. Craigend, Stirlingslure, Scotland, 16 June 1792; D. Darling Point, Sydney, Australia, 5 Oct. 1855. He Served In Wellington's Army In The Peninsular War From 1808 Until The End Of The Campaign, Obtaining The Rank Of Major In 1826, And Was Sent To Survey ...

Mitchill
Mitchill, Mich'il, Samuel Latham, American Scientist: B. North Hempstead, L. I., 20 Aug. 1764; D. New York, 7 Sept. 1831. He Was Graduated M.d. At The University Of Edin Burgh In 1786, And In 1788 Was A Commissioner For Treating With The Iroquois Indians For The Purchase Of Land. In ...

Mites
Mites, Small Parasitic Members Of The Arachnidan Order Acarina, Which Also Contains The Ticks (q.v.), Mange-insects And Similar Forms. The Body Is Compact, Not Divided Into Separate Regions, As Head, Thorax And Abdomen; And They Appear, As They Are, Greatly Inferior To The Spiders. They Have Eight Legs, Eyes Useless, ...

Mitra
Mitra, Metra (sanskrit, Meaning Friend), An Indian God Of Light, Belonging To The Vedic Period. Mitra Is The Friend, The Personification Of Daylight, A Bright Being Beloved Of Man. His Name Is Coupled With That Of Varuna, Another Bright Being. The Association Between Them Is So Close That They Present ...

Mitre
Mitre, Its Ecclesiastics, A Sacerdotal Head Dress Worn By Bishops And Certain Other Church Dignitaries On Solemn Occasions, Being A Sort Of Cap Pointed And Cleft At Top. There Has Been Much Controversy Regarding The Date At Which The Mitre Became Part Of The Official Dress Of Bishops, But The ...

Mitscherlich
Mitscherlich, Eilhard, German Chemist: H. Neuende, Near Jever, Ol Denburg, 7 Jan. 1794; D. Schonberg, Near Ber Lin, 28 Aug. 1863. He Was The Son Of A Clergy Man And Nephew Of The Celebrated Scholar, Christophe Wilhelm Mitscherlich (1760-1854). Going To Heidelberg In 1811, He Devoted Him Self To Philology ...

Mivart
Mivart, Miv'art, Saint George Jackson, English Naturalist: B. London, 30 Nov. 1827; D. There, 1 April 1900. He Was Educated At Harrow And King's College, London. Having Joined The Roman Catholic Church In His 17th Year, He Thereafter Received His Academic Train Ing In Saint Mary's College, Oscott. In 1851 ...

Mixed Races
Mixed Races. Racial Amalgamation, Or Crossing Of The Races, Which Begun In Prehis Toric Times, Has Been Continued Into Our Own Era With Ever-increasing Speed And Complicity Of Results. Broadly Speaking, Any Two Races Can Unite To Form A Third Race. As The Process Of Amalgamation Has Been Going On ...

Mnemosyne
Mnemosyne, Ne-mosi-ne, In Greek My Thology, The Goddess Of Memory; The Mother Of The Nine Muses Of Zeus. She Was A Daughter Of Uranus. Moa, One Of A Race Of Extinct Ratite Flight Less Birds Of New Zealand, Forming The Family Dinornithieler And Composed Of Several Genera (see Dinornithes ) ...

Moab
Moab, Mii'ab, The Ancestor Of A Semitic People Who Occupied A Region East Of The Dead Sea And The Jordan (its Other Boundaries Vary Ing) From An Early Period Till The Christian Era. In The Old Testament (gen. Xix, 37) He Is Said To Be The Son Of Lot By ...

Mobile
Mobile, Mo-bel, Ala., City And County-seat Of Mobile County, Situated On The Western Side Of Mobile Bay, At The Mouth Of The Mobile River, 30 Miles From The Gulf Of Mexico And 50 Miles Below The Junction Of The Alabama And Tombigbee Rivers. Mobile Is 139 Miles By Rail From ...

Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay, Battle Of, A Battle Of The Civil War Fought 5 Aug. 1864. Mobile Bay Is Divided From The Gulf Of Mexico By Mobile Point East And Dauphin Island West, About Three Miles Apart; Hut The Ship-channel Of Less Than 2,000 Yards, Narrowing To 750 Outside, Closely Skirts Mobile ...

Mobilization
Mobilization, The Act Of Bringing An Army To A War Footing, Before The Concentration For War, Which Consists In The Distribution Of Troops Along The Hostile Frontier In Such A Man Ner That They May Be Available For Action. Mo Bilization Consists In The Call For Men And The Requisitioning ...

Mock Orange
Mock Orange, A Name Applied In Eng Land To The Syringa (q.v.), And In The United States To The Prunus Caroliniana, A Small Ever Green Resembling The Cherry-laurel. A Species Of Hickory (q.v.) A Familiar And Cele Brated Songster Of The Southern Part Of The United States (mimus Polyglottus), Represent ...

Mode
Mode, In Music (1) The Manner Of Ar Ranging The Tones And Half-tones In A Scale, This General Designation Being Always Accompanied By A Qualifying Adjective, As Dorian Mode, Minor Mode. Greek Music, From Which Our Modern Music Has Been Evolved, Had An Elaborate System Of Nine Modes, Which Were ...

Modena
Modena, Mo'cli-ni, Italy, A City And Province, Part Of A Former Duchy Now Com Prised Partly In The Compartimenti Of Emilia And Tuscany. The City, Capital Of The Province, Pleasantly Situated In A Fertile Plain, Between The Secchia And The Panaro, 25 Miles Northwest Of Bologna, Is Built With Great ...

Modern Painters
Modern Painters, By John Ruskin (5 Vols., 1843, 1846, 1856, 1860), Was Begun In Order To Vindicate The Landscape Painting Of J. M. W. Turner Against Adverse Criticism. For This Purpose Ruskin Set Forth Systemati Cally And Extensively What He Conceived To Be The Wsthetics Of Visual Art — Not ...

Modernism
Modernism, The Designation Applied To The Advanced Opinion Of Publicists And Lecturers Which In Recent Times Were At Variance With Traditional Orthodox Doctrines. Official Re Straint Was Laid On Them When Pope Pius X During His Pontificate (1903-14) Enunciated The Following Doctrines In His Famous Encyclical "pascendi Gregis" Issued In ...

Modjeski
Modjeski, Ralph, American Civil Engi Neer : B. Cracow, Poland, 27 Jan. 1861. He Came To The United States With His Mother In 1876 And, For American Naturalization, He Changed His Name To Modjeski, His Mother Being The Celebrated Tragedienne, Helena Mod Jeska. He Was Graduated At The College Des ...

Modulation
Modulation, In Music, The Act Of Mov Ing Through The Sounds In The Harmony Of Any Particular Key To Those Of Another, Or The Tran Sition From One Key To Another. The Simplest Form Is The Change From A Given Key To One Nearly Related To It, Namely, Its Fifth ...

Modulus
Modulus, In Mathematics, A Constant Re Ferring To Properties Of Matter In Certain Equa- ' Tions. As Stress Is Proportional To Strain With In The Elastic Limits, Some Constant Quantity May Be Introduced Making This Proportionality Into An Equality. In Dealing With Strength Of Mate Rials, Such A Constant Is ...

Mohair
Mohair. Mohair Is The Commercial And Technical Name Of The Fleece Of The Angora Goat. The Word Comes To The English Through The Old French Mohere, From The Arabic Mukhayyar, Meaning Mohair Cloth. In Color Mohair Is Pure White. Except In Rare Cases, And Grows In Ringlets. The Hairs Composing ...

Mohammed V
Mohammed V, 35th Turkish Sultan In Male Descent Of The House Of Othman: B. 3 Nov. 1844; D. 3 July 1918. A Son Of Sul Tan Abdul Medjid (d. 1861), He Succeeded His Elder Brother Abdul Hamid Ii (q.v.) On The Latter's Deposition And Exile, 27 April 1909. From His ...

Mohammedan Literature
Mohammedan Literature. The Study Of The Traditions Of Mohammed, In All Their Extended Ramifications, Comprises What Might Be Termed Mohammedan Literature; And As These Are Pre-eminently Embodied In The Koran, That Work, Without Striking Literary Art And Mechanically Constructed, Became The In Comparable Classic Of Islam, To Give Rise To ...

Mohammedan Sects
Mohammedan Sects. As Islam Con Stitutes More Than A Religion And Is In Reality A Combination Of Religion, Politics And Jurispru Dence — Elements Which Entered Into The Prob Lem In The Early Centuries And Have Continued Ever Since —it Is Natural That Schisms Should Occur And Sects Rise And ...

Mohammedanism
Mohammedanism Is The Term Fre Quently Given To The Religion Taught By Mohammed, But Not Used By The Followers Of That Religion. Abu-bar, The First Caliph, Is Reported To Have Said That It Is Not Mohammed, But The God Of Mohammed, That We Worship. The Term By Which The Religion ...