Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 19 >> Montpellier to Mount Desert

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 19

Montpellier
Montpellier, Moil-pel-le-a, France, Chief Town Of The Department Of Herauli, On The Lez, Six Miles North Of The Mediterranean, And 80 Miles Northwest Of Marseilles. It Is One Of The Handsomest Towns Of The South Of France And With Its Equable Climate A Favorite Tourist And Winter Resort For Invalids. ...

Montreal
Montreal, Canada The Largest And Most Important City Of The Dominion, And Fourth In Population Among American Cities, Is In The Province Of Quebec. It Lies On The Left Of North Bank Of The Saint Lawrence, At The Head Of Ocean Navigation, 985 Miles From The Atlantic, 180 Miles Southwest ...

Montrose
Montrose, James Graham, Marquis Of, Scotch Royalist General: B. 1612; D. Edinburgh, El May 1650. He Was Son Of The Earl Of Montrose, Whom He Succeeded In That Title In 1626, He Was Educated At Saint Andrew's; Joined The Opposition To Charles I's Attempt To Introduce Episcopacy Into Scotland In ...

Monts
Monts, Pierre Du Guast, Pear Dii Ga Mon, French Colonist In North America: B. Saintonge, France, About 1560; D. Paris, 1611. He Was Of An Italian Family And Educated In The Roman Catholic Faith, But Became A Pro Testant, Fought On The Protestant Side In The Wars Of Religion, And ...

Monuments
Monuments. The Term Monument Is Applied To Structures Which Are Characteristic Or Remarkable On Account Of Their Being Erected As Memorials, And Also, Though Loosely, To Those Buildings Which Express Some Form Of Worship, Or Have Peculiar Prominence On Account Of Their Beauty, Proportion Or Grandeur. In Modern Times, Churches ...

Moody
Moody, Dwight Lyman, American Evan Gelist: B. Northfield, Mass., 5 Feb. 1837; D. There, 22 Dec. 1899. He Worked For A Time On A Farm, Then Went To Boston As A Salesman In A Shoe Store, And While There Became A Member Of A Congregational Church. He Later Obtained A ...

Moon
Moon; The, From The Earliest Times, Has Been The Chief Object In The Sky To Attract The Attention Of The Human Race. The Con Tinual Change In Its Appearance From Day To Day, Its Value As A Light Giver At Night, The Apparent Irregularity Of Its Motions, The Curious Markings ...

Moore
Moore, George, English Author: B. Ire Land, 1853. He Studied Art In London Under Luyten, But Completed His Education In France And Became Thoroughly Imbued With A Gallic Spirit. Apart From A Few Contributions To Periodicals, His First Literary Work Was Con Tained In Two Volumes Of Quasi-french Verse, 'flowers ...

Moore_2
Moore, Henry, Irish Wesleyan Clew Man: B. Near Dublin, 1751; D. 1844. After Conversion, He Joined A Methodist Class In 1777, Began To Preach, Gave Up His Trade Of Wood Carver, Opened A School, And In 1779 Was Ap Pointed By Wesley To The Londonderry Circuit. Called Later To London, ...

Moore_3
Moore, John Bassett, American Lawyer, Diplomatist And Author: B. Smyrna, Del., 3 Dec. 1860. He Attended Private Schools And Was Graduated At The University Of Virginia In 1880. He Read Law In The Office Of Edward G. Brad Ford, Now United States District Judge At Wil Mington, Del., And Was ...

Moore_4
Moore, Thomas, Irish Poet: B. Dublin, 28 May 1779; D. Bromham, Near Devizes, 25 Feb. 1852. He Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin, With A View Of Becoming A Lawyer, And In 1800 Entered As A Student At The Middle Tem Ple. In 1800 He Published A Translation Of 'anacreon' ...

Moose
Moose. The Deer Family (cerviche) Em Braces Not Only All The Round-horned Deer, But Also The Caribou And Moose, Whose Horns Are Flattened In A Manner Known As "palmation' Of This Family, The American Moose (alces Americanus) Is The Most Colossal And Also The Most Picturesque Member. The Moose Of ...

Moraine
Moraine, A Deposit Of Sand, Gravel Or Clay Made By A Glacier. Moraines May Be Di Vided Into Two Classes, Those That Exist On The Ice Itself And Those That Are Formed At The Edge Of Or Under The Ice. Of The First Type, The Most Common Are The Lateral ...

Moran
Moran, Patrick Francis (cardinal), Australian Roman Catholic Prelate: B. Leighlin Bridge, Carlow, Ireland, 16 Sept. 1830; D. Sydney, Australia, 16 Aug. 1911. He Received His Education At The Irish College, The Gregor Ian University And The Propaganda, Rome, And Was Ordained To The Priesthood In 1853. He Was Successively Vice-rector ...

Moravia
Moravia (german,. Miihrea), Austria Hungary, A Western Province And Crownland Bounded North By Prussia, Northeast By Galicia, East And Southeast By Hungary, South By Hun Gary And Austria And West By Bohemia; Area, 8,584 Square Miles. Moravia Proper Consists Of A Large Basin Surrounded By Mountains, On The North The ...

Moravian Church
Moravian Church, The, The Common Name Given In England And America To The Re Newed Unitas Fratrum Or Church Of The Breth Ren — For A Time Styled Also In English The Church Of The United Brethren— Which Origi Nally Flourished In Bohemia, Moravia And Po Land, Was Disrupted And ...

Mordvins
Mordvins, Inord'vinz, A Race Of People Scattered Over The Volga Provinces Of European Russia And To The South And East Of These, And Belonging To The Ural-altaic Family. There Are Two Distinct Groups, The Ersh Or Northern And The Moksha Or Southern, With Differences In Feature, And The Latter Of ...

Morelli
Morelli, Giovanni, Italian Art Critic And Statesman: B. Verona, 25 Feb. 1816; D. Milan, 28 Feb. 1891. He Was Educated At Bergamo, Then Aarau (switzerland), But Turned His Studies To Natural Science At Munich, Becoming Interested At The Same Time In Art Through Genelli, The Painter. After A Short Stay ...

Moreto Y Cabala
Moreto Y Cabala, Ma'ra'to Ę Kfi-ba' Nya, Augustin, Spanish Dramatist: B. Madrid, 9 April D. Toledo, 28 Oct. 1669. Return Ing Home From The University Of Alcala, Where He Had Just Been Graduated In Law, He Began Writing Successfully For The Stage (1640). In Madrid He Soon Found A Friend ...

Morey
Morey, Mo'ff, Samuel, American In Ventor: B. Hebron, Conn., 23 Oct. 1762; D. Fair Lee, Vt., 17 April 1843. He Early Evinced A Talent For Mechanics And Engineering, And At The Time Of The Opening Of The Connecticut River To Navigation Designed And Built The Locks At Bellows Falls. On ...

Morgan
Morgan, John, American Physician: B. Philadelphia, 10 June 1735; D. Philadelphia, 15 Oct. 1789. He Was Graduated (1751) At The College Of Philadelphia (now Known As The University Of Pennsylvania) And Served An Ap Prenticeship In Medicine Under Dr. John Red Man. He Entered The Provincial Army As Sur Geon ...

Morgan_2
Morgan, John) Pierpont, American Financier: B. Hartford, Conn., 17 April 1837; D. Rome, Italy, 31 March 1913. He Was The Son Of _i. S. Morgan (q.v.). He Was Educated At The English High School In Boston And At The University Of Gottingen, Germany. He Began His Business Career In The ...

Morgan_3
Morgan, John) Pierpont, American Financier, Son Of John Pierpont Morgan (1837— 1913) : B. Irvington, N. Y., Sept. 1867. In 1889 He Was Graduated At Harvard University And Soon Afterward Entered The London Branch Of J. P. Morgan & Co., Bankers, Remaining Until 1901. He Became A Member Of The ...

Morgans Raid Into Indiana
Morgan's Raid Into Indiana And Ohio. In The Middle Of June 1863 General Bragg Ordered Gen. John H. Morgan, With 2,000 Picked Mounted Infantry And Four Guns To Move From Tennessee Into Kentucky, Break Up The Railroad Upon Which General Rosecrans Depended For Supplies, Capture Louis Ville, Destroy The Public ...

Morgante Maggiore
Morgante Maggiore. The
Morice
Morice, Adrian Gabriel, Canadian Clergy Man, Ethnologist And Author: B. Saint Mars Sur-colmont, Mayenne, France, 27 Aug. 1859. He Was Educated At Oisseau, Sion And Autun, France, Joined The Oblate Order In 1877 And Three Years Later Was Sent To British Columbia. In 1882 He Was Ordained To The Priesthood, ...

Moritz
Moritz, Ma'rits, Karl Philipp, German Author: B. Hameln, 15 Sept. 1756; D. Berlin, 26 July 1793. He Was Born Of Poor Parents And Became One Of The Most Extraordinary Figures In The Sturm And Drang (storm And Stress) Period. After Distressful Attempts To Gain A Living He Caught The Attention ...

Morland
Morland, Nuir'lrd, George, English Painter: B. London, 26june 1763; D. There, 29 Oct. 1804. His Father,himself A Painter, Gave The Boy A Severe Early Training In Art, And His Proficiency Was Such That His Productions Found Ready Purchasers, While At 10 He Exhibited In The Royal Academy And Became Famous ...

Mormons
Mormons, A Popular Pseudonym For The Church Of Jesus Christ Of Latter-day Saints, A Religious Body Founded By Joseph Smith (see Sierrit, Joseph) At Fayette, N. Y., 6 April 1830. Only Six Persons Took Part In The Formal Organ Ization Of The Church As A Body Corporate, Such Being The ...

Morocco
Morocco, Mo-rok'o, Or Marocco, A Sultanate Or Empire And French Protectorate Of Northwest Africa, Known To Its Inhabitants Only By Its Arabic Name Moghrehel-aksa, "the Ex Treme West.° It Is Hounded On The West By The Atlantic Ocean, North By The Mediterranean Sea, Northeast By Algeria And East And South ...

Moros
Moros, Mer6z, Mohammedan Malays In Habiting The Southwestern Part Of The Philip Pines, Chiefly The Sulu Archipelago And The Islands Of Palawan And Mindanao; Various Sub Divisions Include The Illanos, Samales, Joloanos, Maguendanaos, Etc. Mohammedanism Was Propagated Among The Moros In The 14th Cen Tury By Malays From The Island ...

Morphine
Morphine, An Alkaloid Occurring In 'opium, And Constituting From 3 To 20 Per Cent Of The Crude Drug Depending Upon Where It Originated. It Has The Chemical Formula H2o. In The Crude Opium Phine Exists In The Form Of Two Salts — The ,meconate And Sulphate Of Morphia; And As ...

Morris
Morris, Gouverneur, American States Man: B. Morrisania, N. Y., 31 Jan. 1752; D. There, 6 Nov. 1816. He Was Graduated In 1768 From King's College (now Columbia Univer Sity) ; After Study Of The Law Was Licensed In 17'1 To Practise As An Attorney; Did Excellently Well At The Bar ...

Morris Plan
Morris Plan, The. The Morris Plan Of Industrial Loans And Investments Takes Its Name From A Southern Lawyer, Arthur J. Mor Ris, Formerly Of Norfolk, Va., But Now Of New York. Over 100 Companies Were Organized To Operate This Plan Within The Nine Years Ended 23 March 1919; The Capital ...

Morris_2
Morris, Robert, American Financier And Statesman, A Signer Of The Declaration Of Inde Pendence: B. Liverpool, England, 31 Jan. 1734; D. Philadelphia, 8 May 1806. He Came To The Colonies About 1747 And Entered At Philadelphia The Counting-room Of Charles Willing, Mer Chant; In 1754 Formed A Partnership With Thomas ...

Morris_3
Morris, William, English Poet And Artist: B. Walthamstow, Essex, 24 March 1834; D. Ham Mersmith, London, 3 Oct. 1896. He Was Edu Cated At Marlborough College And Exeter Col Lege, Oxford, Where He Began A Lifelong Friend Ship With Edward Burine-jones. Both Were At Tracted By The Anglo-catholic Revival, And ...

Morrison
Morrison, John Frank, American Army Officer: B. Charlottesville, N. Y., 20 Dec. 1857. He Was Graduated From The United States Mili Tary Academy And Commissioned 2d Lieutenant, 20th Infantry In 1881. During His Service As A Subaltern And Captain He Was Noted As A Student Of Tactics And An Authority ...

Morristown
Morristown, Tenn., City And County Seat Of Hamblen County, 42 Miles Northeast Of Knoxville, On The Southern And The Knoxville And Bristol Railroads. It Has Manufactures Of Flour, Wagons, Agricultural Implements, Furni Ture, Mantels, Hosiery, Brooms, Concrete Blocks, Leather, Medicines, Hardwood Tops And Panels, Canvas Gloves, Harness, Monuments, Lumber, Etc. ...

Morse
Morse, Samuel Finley Breese, American Inventor And Artist: B. Charlestown, Mass., 27 April 1791; D. 2 April 1872. He Was The Eldest Son Of The Rev. Jedidiah Morse (q.v.). After Graduating At Yale In 1810, He Visited England With Washington Allston (q.v.) To Study Paint Ing. In 1813 His First ...

Mortality
Mortality, A Term Applied To That Branch Of Investigation Which Determines The Proportion Of The Number Of Persons Who Die In Any Assigned Period Of Life Or Interval Of Age, Out Of A Given Number Who Enter Upon The Same Interval, And Consequently The Proportion Of Those Who Survive. Tables ...

Mortar
Mortar, Utensil Employed By The Indians Of America And Other Semi-civilized Races For The Grinding Or Mashing Of Grains And Other Substances Used As Food Or For Other Ends. The Indian Mortar Naturally Had A Different Name In Each Tribe, And Some Of These Names Were Familiar To The Whites. ...

Morte Darthur
Morte D'arthur. This Great English Collection Of Arthurian Romances, Written Be Fore 1470 By Sir Thomas Malory, As One Of The Cardinal Books Whose Influence Has Reached Beyond Any Mere Personal Fame. Personally, Indeed, Malory Has Remained Almost Unknown. Even The Probability That This 15th Century Gentleman And Soldier Served ...

Mortimer
Mortimer, Roger, 8th Baron Of Wig More And 1st Earl Of March, English Noble: B. About 1287; D. Smithfield, 29 Nov. 1330. He Had Been Convicted Of Treason In The Reign Of Edward Ii And Pardoned; But Notwithstanding The King's Clemency Took Part In The Rebellion Of The Earl Of ...

Mortmain
Mortmain, Moreman, In English Law, Lands Held By A Corporation Were Said To Be Held In Mortmain (mortua Moms, By Dead Hand), Because They Were Then Not Alienable. The Expression Has Particular Reference To Es Tates Held By Religious And Eleemosynary Cor Porations In England. At One Time Half The ...

Morton
Morton, Henry, American Scientist: B. New York, 11 Dec. 1836; D. There, 9 May 1902. He Was Graduated From The University Of Pennsylvania In 1857 And Became Professor Of Physics And Chemistry At The Episcopal Academy Of Philadelphia In 1860. His Lectures In 1863 At The Franklin Institute In Philadel ...

Morton_2
Morton, Oliver Perry, American States Man: B. Salisbury, Wayne County, Ind., 4 Aug. 1823; D. Indianapolis, 1 Nov. 1877. He Studied Law, Was Admitted To The Bar In 1846, Began The Practice Of His Profession In Centreville, Ind., And Became A Circuit Judge In 1852. He Was An Anti-slavery Democrat, ...

Morton_3
Morton, Thomas, English Colonist In America: B. England About 1575; D. Agamenti Cus (or Acomenticus), Me., 1646. He Was An Attorney Of Clifford's Inn, London, Of A Some What Doubtful Reputation, And Seems To Have Practised Mainly In Western England. In 1622 He Landed In New England, Where He Remained ...

Mosaic
Mosaic, An Imitation Or Reproduction Of A Painting Or Ornamental Design, Formed Gener Ally By Means Of Pieces Of Opaque Glass Of Dif Ferent Colors; Also By Colored Stones (espe Cially Marbles And Precious Stones) Placed Side By Side, And Attached By Being Bedded In A Ce Ment. The Art ...

Mosasauria
Mosasauria, An Order Of Marine Reptiles Of The Upper Cretaceous Period, Typical Of The Reptilian Subclass Pythonomorpha. They Were Of World-wide Distribution And Their Remains Occur So Plentifully In The Western United States As Well As In The Old World That Their Structure Is Thoroughly Known. They Were Large Predaceous ...

Mosby
Mosby, Tritiz'bi, John Singleton, American Lawyer And Soldier: B. Edgemont, Powhatan County, Va., 6 Dec. 1833; D. Washington, 30 May 1916. He Was Graduated At The University Of Virginia (1852), Admitted To The Bar (1855) And Was Practising Law At Bristol, Va., When The Civil War Broke Out. He Enlisted ...

Moscheles
Moscheles, Felix, British Portrait Painter: B. London, 8 Feb. 1833; D. Tunbridge Wells, January 1918. He Was The Son Of Ignaz Moscheles, The Distinguished Pianist And Com Poser, And The Life-long Friend Of The Great Mendelssohn. Felix Was Educated At King's College, London, And Was Then Sent To Ham Burg ...

Moscow
Moscow, Russia, The Second Capital Of The Empire, And Until Peter The Great Selected Saint Petersburg As A Northern Capital, The Sole Capital And Imperial Residence, Situated In A Highly Cultivated District On The Moskva, 400 Miles Direct By Rail Southeast Of Saint Peters Burg. It Is The Capital Of ...

Mosely Commissions
Mosely Commissions, Two Delega Tions Known As The Industrial And The Educa Tional, Which Visited The United States In 1902 And 1903 To Study Conditions And Methods In Their Respective Branches, For Comparison With Those Of Great Britain. The Mosely Industrial Commission Made A Tour Of The United States From ...

Mosen
Mosen, Meiren, Julius, German Poet: B. Marieeney, In Vogtland, Saxony, 8 July 1803; D. Oldenburg, 10 Oct. 1867. He Was Educated In The Plauen Gymnasium, Studied Law (1822) At Jena, Travelled Through Italy And Then Worked For Some Time Under An Attorney At Markneukirchen. In 1834 He Settled At Dres ...

Moses
Moses. Hebrew Leader And Legislator, The Story Of Whose Life And Work Is Given With Such Singular Clearness And Strength In The Pentateuch, Is One Of Those Rare Names That Have Stamped Themselves Permanently On The World's History, So That We Turn Again And Again To The Simple Record Of ...

Mosque
Mosque, Mosk (arabic Mesjid, Italian Moschea), A Mohammedan House Of Prayer. The Form Of The Oldest Mosque Was That Of The Christian Basilica, Which However Became Modi Fied In The Progress Of Mohammedan Archi Tecture. Mohammedans Borrowed Or Adapted Their Ideas Of Architecture From The Nations On Whom They Imposed ...

Mosquito
Mosquito (diminutive Of The Spanish Tnosca, A Tly), A Name Applied To Insects Of The Dipterous Family Culicidce. Mosquitoes Are Cosmopolitan, Only A Few Oceanic Islands, Deserts And Mountain Tops Being Free From Them. Frequently They Occur In Vast Swarms, And They Abound Equally In Arctic Regions, As Alaska And ...

Mosses
Mosses (musci), A Class Of Cryptoganmus Plants, Forming With The Liverworts (hepattcee) The Group Muscinece Or Bryophyta. The Only Plants Likely To Be Wrongly Called Mosses Are The Foliose Liverworts, And These Are Readily Distinguished By Their Two-ranked Nerveless Leaves, Their Four-valved Capsule And Certain Other Characters. A Germinating Moss ...

Moth
Moth, Any Insect Of The Order Lepidoptera Not Included Among The Butterflies (q.v.). Moths Have Antenna Of Many Forms, And On Account Of This Variability Are Often Grouped In A Section Heterocera, But Their Antenna Are Rarely Swollen At The End, Or Uclubbed," And Never In The North American Forms. ...

Mothers Day
Mother's Day. The Honor Of The Origination Of Mother's Day Belongs To Miss Anna Jarvis Of Philadelphia. Her Mother Died In 1906. On Sunday, 9 May 1907, She Told A Friend Whom She Had Invited To Remember With Her The Anniversary Of The Death Of Her Mother Of Her Desire ...

Motley
Motley, John Lothrop, American Historian: B. Dorchester, Mass., 15 April 1814; D. Near Dorchester, England, 29 May 1877. His Education Was Obtained At Harvard, From Which He Was Graduated In 1831, And At The Universi Ties Of Berlin And Gottingen, Between Which He Divided Two Years (1832-33). His First Pub ...

Motor Areas
Motor Areas, Those Portions Of The Brain In Which Are Located The Cells That Govern The Voluntary Muscles Of The Body. The Motor Areas Are Confined More Distinctly To The Cortex Or Outer Surface Of The Brain On Either Side Of The Fissure Of Rolando, Making Up The Areas Known ...

Motor Boats
Motor Boats, Power Boats Equipped With Internal-combustion Engines, As Distin Guished From Boats Propelled By Steam Power. They Divide Into Several Groups Or Types: (1) Or Sets Of Engines Varying From 50 To 300 Or More Horse Power. The Hulls Are Built In Several Styles Round-bottom, Flat-bottom, V-'bottom, Tunnel Bottom, ...

Motor Truck
Motor Truck, A Heavy Type Of Auto Mobile Developed For Carrying Truck Or Freight. At First They Were Called Auto-trucks, And Were Simply Stout Automobiles, With Wagon Bodies, Suiting Them To Carry Goods. Because Of The Great Weight On The Rear Tires These Were Doubled Literally, Two Tires Being Placed ...

Motors In Warfare
Motors In Warfare. The Various Motors Employed In Military Aeronautics, Cul Minating In The "liberty Motor," And The Various Motor Trucks Produced Under Specifications Ap Proved By The War Department Motor Trans Port Board Are So Constructed That The Various Units Entering Into The Construction, Including The Engine, Transmission, Axes, ...

Mott
Mott, Valentine, American Surgeon: B. Glen Cove, L. I., 20 Aug. 1785; D. New York, 26 April 1865. He Was Graduated (1807) At Columbia College When He Went To England To Continue His Studies In Medicine At The Post Graduate Courses Of London And Edinburgh. In 1809 He Returned To ...

Moultrie
Moultrie, William, American Soldier: B. South Carolina, 1731; D. Charleston, S. C., 27 Sept. 1805. He Early Allied Himself With The Military Forces Of The Colonies And In The War With The Cherokees In 1761 The Confidence Of His Fellow Citizens In His Ability Was Shown By His Selection As ...

Mound Builders And Mounds
Mound Builders And Mounds. Two Terms That Have Been Inseparably Con Nected By Investigators Into The History Of These Early Earthen Pyramidal, Terraced And Mound Structures Of The North American Indians. In The Broader Sense, Mounds, Especially In Their Connection With Mound Builders, Include Not Only Pyramidal Structures And Mounds ...

Mount Clemens
Mount Clemens, Mich., City, County Seat Of Macomb County, On The Clinton River, And On The Grand Trunk Railroad, About 22 Miles Northeast Of Detroit. Electric Railroad Lines Connect The City With Detroit And The Towns Along The Coast. The First Settlement Was Made In 1802; And The Original Plan ...

Mount Desert
Mount Desert, De-zert' Or Dez-ert, An Island Off The Coast Of Maine, The Largest Be Longing To The State, Part Of Hancock County. It Is Separated From The Mainland By Western Bay, Mount Desert Narrows And Frenchman's Bay. It Is About 15 Miles Long And 12 Miles Wide; Area, About ...