The Moravian Church has no peculiar doc trines. It is simply and broadly evangelical, in harmony with other Protestant denominations on the cardinal doctrines of Christianity, and bound by no articles on the points of difference. Its only prominent doctrinal feature is the strongly Christ-centred tendency of its teach ing which pervades its official statements, its liturgy and its characteristic preaching. The digest ("Results” of the General the catechisms and the Easter Morning Litany sufficiently set forth the doctrinal position of the Church. The Church has an established liturgical system, with a litany used regularly on the Lord's Day, and a variety of offices for different Church seasons, in which special prom inence is given to singing; the cultivation of church music having always been a conspicuous feature of the Moravian cultus. The general order of the ancient church year is observed in the services. Of distinctive services retained by some congregations, the love-feast, intro duced in 1727 in imitation of the Agapm of the Apostolic Church, is the most conspicuous. Moravian orders of the ministry are bishops, presbyters and deacons. A diocesan episcopacy does not exist. The bishops are, as such, everywhere on a parity, representing the entire Unitas Fratrum. They are ex officio members of the General Synod and of the synods of the several provinces in which they reside. Besides having the exclusive function of ordaininv men, they are looked to as pre-eminently the guard ians of sound doctrine and established order. In governing boards they officiate, not by virtue of episcopal authority, but by election, and those who do not occupy executive posi tions serve, meanwhile, in pastorates. The Moravian Church in America is divided into a Northern and a Southern province, constitut ing, with the British and German branches of the Church, an organic unity under the Gen eral Synod. The legislative authority of each
province is the Provincial Synod which elects an executive hoard known as the Provincial Elders' Conference and composed usually of a bishop and two presbyters. The Northern province is divided into districts, each organ ized with its synod and its executive board. The communicant membership of the American Church in 1917 was 21,302 and its total 30,441. The enrolment in the 14 mission provinces of the Church was 109,079 and its grand total in all countries was 156,210, besides 70,000 members of the state churches of Europe, ministered to by Moravian home missionaries.
Bibliography.— Croger, 'Geschichte der erneuerten Briiderkirche' (Gnadau 1854) ; Gindely, 'Geschichte der lxihmischen Briider) (Prague 1857) ; id., 'Ucher des Johann Amos Comenius Leben and Wirksamkeit' (2d ed., Znaim 1893) ; de Schweinitz. E. A., 'History of the Unitas Fratrum' (Bethlehem 1885) : Schwarze, W. N., 'John Hus, The Martyr of Bohemia' (New York 1915). For the history of the Church in the United States consult Car roll, H. K., 'Religious Forces in the United States' (New York 1912) ; Hamilton, T. T., 'Fistory of the Moravian Church in the United States' (New York 1895) ; id., 'History of the Missions of the Moravian Church' (Bethlehem 1901) ; Reichel, 'Early History of the Church of the United Brethren in North America> (Nazareth 1888) ; Schwarze, 'History of the Moravian College and Theological Seminary' (Bethlehem 1909) ; Clewell, 'History of Wach ovia in North Carolina.) Bishop J. M. LEVERING.
Revised by J. H. CLEWELL, President of the Moravian Seminary and Col lege, Bethlehem, Pa.