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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 19

Mushroom
Mushroom, A Popular Term Loosely Ap Plied To Many Species Of Higher Fungi, Especially Such As Have A Cap (pileus) Upon An Erect Stalk. Primarily, The Mushroom Is Agaricus Campestris (see Fungi), The Only Species Cultivated Upon A Commercial Scale. Though More Than 700 Spe Des Of Mushrooms Have Been ...

Music
Music Is The Science Of Combining Tones In Melodic, Rhythmic And Harmonic Order, So As To Excite The Emotions Or Appeal To The Intel Lect. For Untold Ages It Was Purely Emotional With Its Development As A Science, In The Mid Dle Ages, It Appealed Almost Entirely To The Intellect, ...

Musical Elements And Terms
Musical Elements And Terms. Music Is The Science Or Art Which Treats Of Tones Produced By The Mathematically Regular Vibra Tions Of Resonant Bodies, In Contradistinction To A Confusion Of Irregular Vibrations Created By Noise Or A Jumble Of Sounds. Modern Music, Therefore, Considered On Its Technical Side Depends Upon ...

Musical Instruments
Musical Instruments, Mechanical. The Record Of Inventions And Devices In This Field Shows A Great Variety Of Shapes, Sounds And Methods Of Operation. One Of The Most Famous In This Class Of Music-producers Was Barnum's Steam Calliope, Used For Many Years In Circus Processions. Organs Of All Sizes And Shapes, ...

Musical Instruments
Musical Instruments, Mechanical Devices From Which Musical Sounds Are Pro Duced By The Vibration Of Strings, The Movement Of Air-columns In Tubes And The Vibration Of Solid And Hollow Bodies Of Resonant Materials. Of Very Ancient Origin, Their Earliest Forms Were Probably Derived From Suggestions Offered By Inanimate Nature. The ...

Musk Deer
Musk-deer, A Small Deer-like Animal (moschus Moschsferus) Of The Sub-family Moschin6r Differing From Typical Deer In The Absence Of Antlers In Either Sex, In Having Only One Lachrymal Orifice, In The Presence Of A Gall Bladder, And, In The Male, Of The Musk-bearing Glands To Which The Animal Owes Its ...

Muskegon
Muskegon, Mils'ke'gon, Mich.7cit; County-seat Of Muskegon County, At The Mouth Of The Muskegon River, On Muskegon Lake, And On The Grand Rapids And Indiana, The Grand Trunk, The Pere Marquette, And The Grand Rapids, Grand Haven And Muskegon Electric Railroads, About 95 Miles Northwest Of Lansing And 38 Miles Northwest ...

Mussels
Mussels, Marine. The Marine Mussels Belong To A Family (mytilidee) Of Bivalve Mol Lusks Which Have The Anterior Retractor Muscles Very Small, The Posterior Large And The Two Valves Of The Shell Equal And Covered By A Thick Horny Layer. Numerous Species Occur In All Seas, And, Because Of The ...

Mustelidal
Mustelidal, A Family Of Small Carniv Orous Mammals Classified Between The Dogs And The Bears, And Traceable In Geological History Back To Early Eocene Time. The Special Charac Teristic Of The Family Is The Reduction Of The Mo Lar Teeth In The Upper Jaw To A Single One. The Dentition ...

Mutiny
Mutiny (fr. Mutin, Refractory, Stubborn; Mutiner, To Rise In Arms). Two Hundred Years Ago The Word Mutiny Was Often Used In De Scribing Insurrection Or Sedition In Civil Society; But It Is Now Applied Exclusively To Certain Offenses By Sailors And Soldiers. Properly It Is The Act Of Numbers In ...

Mutsuhito
Mutsuhito, Moo-tsu-hee-to, The 121st In The Line Of Mikados Or Emperors Of Japan And, According To The Impersonality Ruling In All Japanese History, Posthumously Called After The Year-period, The Meiji Tenn° : B. Kyoto, 3 Nov. 1852, 2d Son Of The Emperor Komei (1831-67), Declared Heir-apparent 10 July 1860; Succeeded ...

My Prisons Ale Mie
My Prisons (ale Mie Prigioni'), One Of Italy's Most Noted Books, Was Written By Silvio Pellico (1789-1854) And Published In Turin In 1832. The Work Is Autobiographical, Relating The 10 Years' Experience Of The Author, Charged With Conspiracy And Condemned By The Austrian Government, First To Death And Subse Sequently ...

Mycorriza
Mycorri'za Is A General Name For A Group Of Subterranean Fungi That Spread Their Growing, Feeding Part (mycelium) Through The Loose Damp Soil (humus) Of The Floor Of A Forest Or Wood-lot. They Are Symbiotic With A Great Variety And Number Of Green-leaved Plants, Including Forest Trees Of Several Families. ...

Myelitis
Myelitis (from Greek Pi/a*: Mar Row), An Inflammation, Attended With More Or Less Softening, Of The Substance Of The Spinal Cord. It May Be Acute Or Chronic And Is A Rare Disease. Some Of The Maladies Formerly Ascribed To Chronic Myelitis Are Now Known To Be Due To Chronic Induration ...

Myriapoda
Myriapoda, A Group Formerly Classified Among The Arthropodan Animals, Hut Now Bet Ter Known. It Includes The Groups Of Chilo Poda, Or Centipedes, And The Diplopoda, Mille Peds Or Galley-worms. The Features Common To All Are The Elongate Worm-like Body Consist Ing Of A Head And Behind This The Trunk ...

Myrmecophily
Myrmecophily, In Its Broadest Sense, Signifies A Condition Of Friendship With Ants, And Includes The Subject Of The Various Insect And Other Guests Kept Or Entertained In Their Nests By Ants. The Side Of It To Be Considered Now, However, Is The Relation Of Certain Plants To Ants, When This ...

Mysteries
Mysteries (latin Mysterium, From Greek Mystes, Initiate)—in Ancient History, Were Among The Greeks, And Afterward Also Among The Romans, Secret Religious Assemblies, In Which No Uninitiated Person Was Permitted To Take Part. They Originated At A Very Early Period. They Seem To Have Had A Double Object — First, That ...

Mysticism
Mysticism, Mis'ti-siz'm, A Term Derived From The Latin Mysticus, Greek/mm/033 Mystical, Secret, From A Mystic, One Initiated Into Mysteries, And From Utifiv, , To Close The Lips Or Eyes. Mysticishas For Many Minds A Repel Lent Sense, Owing, As A Recent Writer Has Acutely Observed, To Its Association With The ...

Mythology
Mythology. (latin Mythologia; Greek Poor, A Myth, And A.oyfa, An Account), Includes The Whole Body Of Myths Of A Nation ; The Ex Planation, Comparative Study And Interpretation Of These Myths. In The Popular Acceptation Of The Term, Mythology, However, Is Used To Sig Nify The Religious Conceptions Of Races ...

Myxedema
Myxedema, A Peculiar State Of The Nerve Tissues Of The Body Causing Many Nutri Tive Changes In The Body. Its Cause Is A Loss Of Function Of The Thyroid Gland (q.v.) And A Resulting Diminution In The Supply Of Its Secre Tion To The Blood. It Is Strictly A Fibrosis ...

N J Morristown
Morristown, N. J., City, County-seat Of Morris County, On The Delaware, Lackawanna And Western, The Morristown And Erie And The Pennsylvania Railroads; Also Morris County Traction Company Line From Elizabeth To Lake Hopatcong 40 Miles; About 20 Miles West Of Newark. It Is Situated In An Agricultural Region In Which ...

N Y Middletown
Middletown, N. Y., City, In Orange County, On The New York, Ontario And West Ern, The New York, Susquehanna And Wil Mington, And The Erie Railroads, Nearly Midway Between The Hudson And Delaware Rivers, And About 66 Miles Northwest Of The City Of New York. Middletown Was Settled About The ...

N Y Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon, N. Y., City In West Chester County, On The Bronx River And Hutchinson River, An Arm Of Pelham Bay, And On The New York, New Haven And Hartford, And The New York Central And Hudson River And New York, Westchester And Boston Rail Roads, Adjoining New York City ...

Nabatjeans
Nabatjeans, A Semitic Race Of People Whose Kingdom Extended From Damascus On The North To Al-hajr Possession Of The Country As Early As 312 B.c. For Antigonus And Afterward His Son Demetrius Tried In Vain To Conquer Them. Judas And Jonathan Had Relations With Them At The Time Of The ...

Nagpur
Nagpur, Nag- Or Niig-poor', Or Nag Pore, India, A City, District And Division Of The Central Provinces. (1) The City, Capital Of The District And Division, And Also Of The Central Provinces, 520 Miles By Rail East Of Bombay, Although At An Elevation Of 1,100 Feet Above Sea Level, Occupies ...

Nahum
Nahum, Na'hiim (hebrew For °rich In God's Comfort"), One Of The 12 Minor Hebrew Prophets Of The Old Testament, Whose Only Ord Is The Book, Attributed To 607-606 S.c., That Bears His Name, A Reference In Nehemiah Vii, 7, As °rehm" Being A Copyist's Error. Nahum Is Described As °the ...

Nail
Nail, An Elastic Horny Plate On The Upper Or Dorsal Surface Of The End Of A Finger Or Toe, As In Man And Monkeys. Hoofs, Claws, Talons, Sheath-horns And The Bills Of Birds Are Analo Goes. Nails And Claws Of All Kinds Are Modi Fications Of The Epidermis, Identical In ...

Nails
Nails, Headed Spicules Of Metal, Varying In Size From Those A Little Larger Than Ordinary Pins To Those Several Inches In Length And From 1/40 To Of An Inch In Thickness. Up To The Beginning Of The 19th Century They Were Made By Hand As A Household Industry In Various ...

Names
Names Of Persons In The Very Earliest Ages No Doubt Had Some Significance And Mean Ing, But No Record Is Handed Down To Us. The Old Testament Names Are Almost All Original, That Is, (oven In The First Instance To The Individ Ual Bearing Them, And Either Originated In Some ...

Namur
Namur, (fr. Na-miirl, Bel Gium; (1) A City, Capital Of The Province Of The Same Name, At The Confluence Of The Sambre And Meuse, 35 Miles Southeast Of Brussels. The Old Fortifications Have Been Razed Since 1866 With The Exception Of The Picturesque Cita Del Dating From 1784, Built Upon ...

Nancy
Nancy (fr. Non-se), France, The Capital Of Ancient Lorraine, Of The Former Department Of Meurthe And Since 1872 Of The Department Of Meurthe-et-moselle, Situated In A Fertile Plain, Near The Left Bank Of The Meurthe, 218 Miles East Of Paris, On The Railway To Strassburg. It Is Divided Into The ...

Nansen
Nansen, Fridtjof, Fret'yof Nan'sen, Nor Wegian Arctic Explorer: B. Great Froen, Near Christiania, 10 Oct. 1861. He Studied At Chris Tiania University And In 1882 Made An Arctic Voyage In A Sealing Vessel In Order To Have Op Portunities Of Studying Animal Life In The Higher Latitudes. On His Return ...

Nantes
Nantes, N5.nts (fr. Natit) France, Capi Tal Of The Department Of Loire-inferieure, And An Important Commercial Port, On The Right Bank Of The Loire, Where Its Receives Both The Erdre And The Sevre, 248 Miles By Rail West Southwest Of Paris. The Loire Here Forms A Number Of Islands, Two ...

Nanticoke
Nanticoke, An'ti-kok (nentigo, °tide Water People))), A Former American Indian Tribe Of The Algonquian Family Residing, When First Discovered By The Whites, On The East Shore Of The Nanticoke River, Where According To Smith Their Principal Village, Also Called Nanti Coke, Was Situated In 1608. Their Language Was Very Closely ...

Naphtha
Naphtha, In The Commercial Sense A Prod Uct Of The Fractionation Of Crude Petroleum, Ob Tained By The Redistillation Of Benzine, Being The Heavier Constituent After The Benzoline Has Dis Tilled Over. It Is Also Called °mineral Naphtha.* Another Commercial Article Is *solvent Naphtha,* A Somewhat Similar Liquid Obtained In ...

Naphthol
Naphthol, In Chemistry, A Substance De Rived From Naphthalene In The Same Way That Phenol Is Derived From Benzene.— That Is, By Replacing One Of The Hydrogen Atoms Of The Hydrocarbon By A Molecule Of Hydroxyl, Oh. Its Chemical Name Is Hydroxynaphthalene. The Empirical Formula For Naphthalene Being Ci.h4, The ...

Napier
Napier, Na'pi-er, Sir Charles, British Naval Commander, Cousin Of Sir Charles James And Sir William Napier (q.v.) : B. Merchiston Hall, Stirlingshire, 6 March 1786; D. Merchis Ton Hall, Hampshire, 6 Nov. 1860. At 13 He Entered The Navy As A Volunteer And In 1805 Was Promoted Lieutenant. In 1807 ...

Napier_2
Napier, John, Scottish Mathematician: B. Merchiston, Near Edinburgh, 1550; D. There, 4 April 1617. He Was Educated At Saint Andrews, Traveled In Europe, Returned To A Life Of Proprietorship And Leisurely Study, And Pub Lished In 1593 His 'plaine Discovery Of The Whole Revelation Of Saint John,' Which Was An ...

Naples
Naples, Na'plz, Italy, The Capital Of The Province Of Naples, And Previously Of The For Mer Kingdom Of The Two Sicilies (q.v.), The Largest City And Most Important Seaport Of The Kingdom, Situated On The Celebrated Bay Of Naples, 150 Miles By Rail Southeast Of Rome. Its Site Is Of ...

Napoleon I
Napoleon I, Emperor Of The French: B. Ajaccio, Corsica, 15 Aug. 1769; D. Longwood, Saint Helena, 5 May 1821. He Was Descended From The Italian Family Of Bonaparte (q.v.), Of Which The Corsican Branch Through Him Became The Historic Representative. Napoleon Parte Was The Son Of Charles Bonaparte, An Ad ...

Napoleon Iii
Napoleon Iii (charles Louis Napo Leon Bonaparte), Emperor Of The French: B. Paris, 20 April 1808; D. Chiselhurst, England, 9 Jan. 1873. He Was The Son Of Louis Bona Parte (q.v.), King Of Holland. He Was Taken By His Mother, Queen Hortense, To Switzerland In 1816, Was Educated At The ...

Narbonne
Narbonne, Nar-bon, France, The Chief Town Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Aude, In A Beautiful Hill-girt Plain, Eight Miles From The Mediterranean And 36 Miles By Rail East Of Carcassonne, And Commanding The Entrance Into Spain By The Southwest. Boule Vards Occupy The Site Of The Mediaeval Ram ...

Narcissism
Narcissism, Nar-sls'sizm'. In The Newer Analytic Psychology Narcissism Is The Stage In The Development Of The Human Psyche, When The Ego Derives The Gratifications Of Its Libido (q.v.) From The Projections Of Its Own Mental States. In The Development Of The Child The Autoerotic Pleasures Derived From Merely Mas Turbatory ...

Narcotics
Narcotics (from Greek Vapkedv, To Be Numb), Substances Which Have The Property Of Stupefying. In Small (medicinal) Doses They Either Quiet Undue Irritability Of The Nervous System, Producing Sleep And Relieving Pain Or Spasm, Or They Excite Or Stimulate The Normal Irritability. Opium And Alcohol, For Example, Are Sometimes Used ...

Narcotine
Narcotine, An Alkaloid Which Forms From 5 To 6 Per Cent Of The Opium From Asia Minor And A Larger Proportion Of The Opium From India And Persia. It Has The Chemical Formula And Acts As A Narcotic Poison. It May Be Prepared As Follows: The Morphine Content Of The ...

Nares
Nares, Narz, Six George Strong, English Vice-admiral And Arctic Explorer: B. Aberdeen, 1831; D. 15 Jan. 1915. The Son Of A Naval Offi Cer, He Was Educated At The Royal Naval Col Lege And Entered The Navy In 1845. After Serv Ing On The Australian Station He Was Appointed Mate ...

Narrative Poetry
Narrative Poetry. The Telling Of A Story In Verse Is In Modern Times Rather Ex Ceptional Than Normal, Owing To The Extraordi Nary Rise In Importance Of Prose Fiction. But In Early Periods Narrative Poetry Was The Most Abundant And Important Kind, Owing To The Primitive Tendency To Devote Poetry ...

Narwhal
Narwhal, A Large Porpoise Which In Habits The Arctic Ocean. It Belongs To The Family Delphiniche And Was Named Moitodon Monoceros By Linnaeus. Its Most Striking Char Acteristic Is The Possession By The Male Of A Very Long, Straight, Spirally-grooved Tusk, Which Projects Forward From The Left Side Of The ...

Nashville
Nashville, Tenn., Capital Of Tennessee, The Second Largest City In The State, And County Seat Of Davidson County, 186 Miles Southwest Of Louisville, Ky., And 234 Miles Northeast Of Memphis. Nashville Is On The Cumberland River And The Nashville, Chattanooga And Saint Louis, Louisville And Nashville And Tennessee Central Railroads. ...

Nasmyth
Nasmyth, Patrick Milner, Scottish Painter: B. Edinburgh, 7 Jan. 1787; D. Lambeth, London, 17 Aug. 1831. He Studied Under His Father And Developed A Great Talent For Land Scape, Though He Labored Under The Difficults Of Ill Health And A Crippled Right Hand Which Neces Sitated The Use Of The ...

Nast
Nast, Thomas, American Caricaturist: B. Landau, Bavaria, 27 Sept. 1840; D. Guayaquil, Ecuador, 7 Dec. 1902. His Mother Brought Him To This Country In 1846. He Was Employed As Doorkeeper In Bryant's Art Gallery, Broadway And 13th Street, New York, Where He Spent His Spare Time Copying The Paintings. For ...

Nata
Nata, Na'ta, In Mexican Mythology, The Name Of A Former Legendary Prophet, Who In The "age Of Water" (atonatiuh) Escaped With His Wife, Nena Or Xochiquetzal, From The Gen Eral Destruction Of Mankind By The Deluge, In A Boat Made From The Trunk Of An Ahuehuete, Or Mexican Cyprus Tree, ...

Natal
Natal, Na'tal, Africa, An Original Province Of The Union Of South Africa, Formerly A Separate Colony On The Southeast Coast, Bordering On The Indian Ocean And Bounded By Portuguese East Africa, The Trans Vaal And Orange River Colonies, Basutoland And Cape Colony. Including Zululand, Annexed In 1897, It Has An ...