UNIVERSITY OF). Closely associated with it are the university library with 600,000 volumes and 2,500 manuscripts, together with 3,000 incunab ula; the Collegium Georgianum (1494), a priests' seminary; the Maximilianeum (1852), etc. There is also a high school of technology and numerous other high class institutions for educational purposes. The industrial develop ment of Munich lags behind its aesthetic devel opment. Its stained-glass works, iron, brass and bell foundries, lithographing and engraving works and manufactories of optical and mathe matical instruments and various artistic articles, are, however, deservedly noted. Still more famous are the enormous breweries of Bavarian beer, which annually produce about 49,000,000 gallons, of which 37,000,000 are consumed in the city itself. The brew-houses and beer-gardens are world famous. Munich carries on a large trade in grain and in objects of art.
In 1158 Henry the Lion raised the Villa Munichen from its previous obscurity by estab lishing a mint and a salt-emporium within its precincts, the name (also appearing as Forum ad Monachos) being derived from the monks who owned the site. In the 13th century the dukes of the Wittelsbach dynasty selected Munich for their residence and fortified the town. In 1327 the old town was nearly de stroyed by fire, and was rebuilt by the Emperor Louis the Bavarian; it was not until the fortifi cations were razed at the close of the 18th cen tury that the limits of the town were enlarged to any extent. The true history of modern
Munich is the account of its artistic develop ment in the 19th century, closely identified with which are Klenze and Gartner the architects, Schwanthaler the sculptor, Cornelius and Kaul bach, the painters, and Wagner the composer. The modern Munich school of painting, headed by K. von Piloty, W. Diez and Griitzner, is characterized by marked realism in color and detail, in contrast to the romanticism of the older masters. The elevated site of the city and the neighborhood of the Alps render it liable to sudden changes of temperature, some times ranging over 20 in 24 hours. The popu lation in 1801 was only 48,:4:5; in 1915 it was 630,000; from 30.4 per thousand in 1871 the deathrate fell to 20.5 in 1904.
The university, the Academy of Fine Arts, and the Conservatory of Music, under the leadership of men of world-wide reputation, and the splendid facilities of the city in its theatres, museums and galleries, its handsome buildings and healthful location, attract thou sands of visitors to Munich every year.
The municipal budget of Munich is about $4,500,000. The debt is not far from $40,000,000, but the city has almost twice the sum invested in public property.. The city is governed by 2 burgomeisters, 40 magistrates and about 70 councilmen.