The most representative apocalypses come from the period 200 a.c. to 100 A.D. It must not be concluded that the apocalyptic sprang into being at one time. The transition toward the apocalyptic was made in the Old Testament it self, as shown by the appearances of the apocalyptic tendencies in Ezekiel and Isaiah 24-27, and one of the best apocalypses, the book of Daniel. The principal Jewish ri apocalypses of the period B.C. to 100 A.D. are arranged in chronological order, Enoch, testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Assumption of Moses, Secrets of Enoch, 2 Baruch, 3 Baruch and 4 Ezra (2 Esdras). A general survey of the character and contents of these books is as follows: Enoch.— It is a composite collection of writings coming from different centuries. There are indications of at least five books, so that a more appropriate title would be the °Books of Enoch.* The oldest sections of this Enoch literature are in chapters 83-90 and 1-36. These chapters date from the first half of the 2d cen tury a.c. Chapters 83-90 are the oldest sections of the book, and by far the most complete and typical of the apocalyptic. They consist of dream visions from the beginning to the end of time. History is allegorized by use of sym bolical language. Chapters 1-36 narrate the visions of Enoch and his journeys through earth, Sheol and heavenly places. This has been truly named the work of a °Jewish Dante.) The 1st century B.c. sections are chap ters 37-71 and 91-108. Chapters 37-71 have been named the °Parables of Enoch,'" and they picture the judgment of the wicked, the lot of the apostates, the blessedness of the saints and the idea of a new heaven and a new earth. Chapters 91-108 are a series of exhortations. Chapters 72-82 are a little uncertain in regard to the date, but they probably come from the 2d century B.C.
The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. — It is a series of apocalyptic writings in the name of the 12 sons of Jacob. The entire set of writings, with the exception of a few later Jewish and Christian interpolations, comes from the latter part of the 2d century B.C. The Testament of each Patriarch in turn follows the same literary form of division into a triple arrangement. The first division of each one is a historical sketch based upon Genesis. Some particular vice or virtue is emphasized. In the second division an exhortation is given rel ative to these vices or virtues. The third di vision deals with the future of the family and in predictive ways outlines future events. The book as a whole marks the high-water mark of Jewish ethics in this early period.
Assumption of Moses.— It was written in Palestine during the first part of the 1st cen tury A.D. The interest in this apocalypse dates from the discovery of a Latin manuscript in Milan in 1861. By means of this Latin frag ment, the Greek fragments and the New Testa ment allusions in Jude and 2 Peter, the resto ration of some of the details of the original is about complete. The author evidently was a man with Pharisaic beliefs. The chief value of the book is its close relation to the New Testament writings.
Secrets of Enoch.— The apocalypse is some times called 2 Enoch. The text has been largely recovered from, the Slavonic versions of the 16th and 17th centuries. It was writ
ten by a Hellenistic Jew, probably in Egypt, during the middle of the 1st century A.D. One of the prominent marks of its Hellenistic tend encies is its doctrine of the pre-existence of man.
2 Baruch.— This apocalypse is often called the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch, because of the discovery of a very fine copy of it in the Syriac language. This manuscript was a translation from an original manuscript in the Greek and was discovered in 1866. The book is composite in origin, parts of it being writ ten as early as 50 B.C. and other parts of it coming from after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The outlook, as far as the future is con cerned, in the earlier sections is very hopeful, while in the later sections all hope for a messi anic kingdom is practically abandoned. The greatest value of the book is its inter-relation to the Epistles of Paul.
3 Baruch.— It is called the Greek Apoca lypse of Baruch. It was not definitely recog nized as a separate book from the other books of Baruch until the discovery of a manuscript in 1896. It was written in the days of the early Christian Church in the 1st century A.D. It refers to only five heavens, while Enoch re fers to seven and Secrets of Enoch to ten.
4 Ezra.—Chapters 3-14 of 2 Esdras of the Old Testament Apocrypha are the apocalypse of 4 Ezra. This order of the different books of Ezra is derived from the Vulgate. It is not a unit; some parts were written before the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., and some were writ ten as late as 120 A.D. The main section of the book is found in chapters 3-10, generally desig nated as the Salathiel Apocalypse. The remain ing sections consist of several significant vi sions. The main value of the book lies in its relation to the problems of pre-Talmudic days and the New Testament.
In addition to these more important Jewish apocalypses there are numerous Christian apoc alypses. Some are. found in the New Testament, as, for example, the book of Revelation. The most important ones outside of the New Testa ment are the Apocalypse of Peter, the Testament of Hezekiah, Shepherd of Hermas and numer ous Christian Sibylline Oracles. Some of the Sibylline Oracles have a few ancient Jewish elements in them coming from the 2d century B.C. The New Testament apocalypses are not written under assumed names, which can largely be accounted for by the new emphasis upon personality in Christianity. However, closely following the period of the New Tes tament the literary form of pseudonymity is again assumed. See APOCRYPHA.
Charles, R. H., English edi tions of nearly all the Jewish Apocalypses, The Apocrypha, and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament' (Oxford 1913), 'Eschatology' (2d ed., London 1913), 'The Religious Develop ment between the Old and the New Testa ments' (New York 1914) ; Deane,
depigrapha) (New York 1891) ; Encyclopaedia Biblica, article °Apocalyptic Literature) (New York 1899) ; Fairweather, W.,