AUDUBON SOCIETIES are tions of bird-lovers who work to educate public opinion to a proper appreciation and protection of bird life. The term "Audubon Society" was coined by George Bird Grinnell (q.v.) in 1886, and an organization for the protection of birds at that time started by him attained a member ship of 48,862. It was later discontinued, but the name and plan survived. In 1895 Audubon societies were organized in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, and during the next few years bird-lovers in many other States followed suit. The national committee of Audubon societies was organized at a meeting held in Washington in 1902; and 1905 saw the organization of the National Association of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals; with William Dutcher as president and T. Gil bert Pearson as secretary and financial agent. The generosity of Mr. Albert Willcox provided financial support of the undertaking at this pe riod (more than $331072 in 1905 and 1906), and at the end of 1906 the Association had an interest-bearing endowment fund of more than $336,000 and an income from other sources of approxima,tely $9,000. In May 1910, the Audu bon bill to prohibit the sale of the feathers of native birds in the State of New York was en acted. A similar law has since that time been enacted in about 12 other States. Many lawn for the establishment of game commissions and game warden forces, or prohibiting the sale of game, owe their existence to Audubon society, activities; and from the beginning the educa tional side of Audubon work has been prom inent. Up to 1 July 1915 the Association had enrolled as Junior Audubon members 373,153 school children, and had given systematic in struction in bird lore to them and to 18,966 teachers. Hundreds of articles bearing on the economic value of birds to mankind have been published in school journals, in various literary magazines and in newspapers throughout the country. A force of six or seven lecturers maintained, who give illustrated addresses be fore audiences of school children and to women's clubs, granges and other organizations. A system of courses in bird study is given by the association's special corps of lecturers at many different State summer schools for teachers.
In 1914 the Association began its department of applied ornithology. This is a special work to encourage the people generally to attract birds about their homes by artificial means, and to induce those favorably situated to engage in the propagation of wild ducks and other game point are destined to produce a decided in fluence on popular sentiment.
The National Association of Audubon So cieties is to-day a strong, far-reaching institu tion. While engaging actively in preserving wild life, it recognizes fully the claims of the sportsman, and has no fight with the man who legally kills game birds and game animals. In summer it guards, by means of paid wardens, virtually every important colony of sea-birds on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, as well as on many lakes of the interior. It owns or leases many islands where ducks and sea-birds breed. It originated the system of Federal bird reservations, and co-operates financially with the government in protecting them. It publishes and distributes annually over 6,000,000 pages of bird-protective litera ture,.and the home office has become a general clearing house for all kinds of information in reference to the study and conservation of wild birds and animals. The Association makes ex penditures every year for the protection of big game, for feeding game birds and song birds in winter, and in prosecuting violators of the law. The Association collected over $90,000 for the bird-protective cause in 1914, and the friends of the organization speak with pride of the fact that only 7 per cent of the income is being expended for administrative salaries.
AUE, Hartmann von, German poet: b. 1170; d. about 1215. He was of humble birth, being the vassal of the Lord of Aue, who took him with him in one of the crusades, either in 1189 or 1197. Very little is known of his life. Of his works 'Erec> is undoubtedly the best (2d ed. in High German, Halle 1855). In this epic poem, of some 10,000 lines, the Arthurian legends are first introduced into Germany. Next in importance is his 'Gregorius von Stein,' the material of which is drawn from French romance (Berlin 1838). His most popular work was 'Der arme Heinrich,' his one work which is based on German folk lore (published by the Grimm Brothers, Berlin 1815). Many editions of his works have been published in German. Consult Cassel, 'Die Symbolik des Blutes and der arme Heinrich des Hartmann von Au& (Berlin 1882).
AUE, Saxony,' Germany, city in Zwickau, on the Zwickau-Schwarzenberg Railroad, near the juncture of the Mulde and the Schwarz wasser rivers. It is a busy industrial centre, manufacturing paints, metal ware goods, tex tiles, furniture, paper, tobacco pipes, etc. It is the seat of the District Court, has five public buildings and its population is about 20,000.