The Subordinate Styles.— The Lombard churches adhered in many cases to the basilican plan with wooden roof-ceiling; but vaulting was also early used, as in San Ambrogio, Milan, and the vaulted churches varied greatly in plan. The round window, the splayed and shafted portal with a porch and the arcaded cornice are characteristic. The Tuscan employed banding and paneling in white and black marble ex ternally and in and around Pisa richly arcaded facades were common. The great domical bap tisteries of Florence and Pisa also belong to this style. The French Romanesque churches were frequently vaulted, sometimes with bar rel-vaults (Autun, Clermont-Ferrand, Issoire); more often with groined vaults as at Caen. The exteriors became increasingly varied and struc turally expressive, with twin towers at the west end and figure sculpture attained high merit (Saint Trophime and Saint Gilles at Arles; Chartres). In parts of central France (Peri gueux, Angouleme) domical vaulting betrays Byzantine influence via Cyprus and Venice. The Anglo-Norman churches, often of vast size (e.g., Saint Alban's, over 500 feet long) were almost always roofed with wood over the high central nave, with vaulted side-aisles. Square central lantern-towers, round nave-piers and the carved zigzag are frequent. The Rhen ish abbey churches are noted for their pic turesque masses and many towers: they often have an apse at each end (Worms, Mayence, etc.). In the 12th century many wooden-roofed
churches in France, England and Germany re ceived vaulting.
Bibliography.— Consult any of the general histories of architecture (Choisy, Fergusson, Fletcher, Hamlin, Kimball, Edgell, Simpson, Sturgis-Frothingham). Also Hasak, 'Die ro manische and die gotische Baukunst) (Stutt gart 1899) ; Jackson, T. G., (Byzantine and Ro manesque Architecture) (London 1912). For the Anglo-Norman: Bond, F., (Introduction to English Church Architecture) (London 1913) ; Scott, G. (English Church Architecture) (Lon don 1882). For the French Styles: Baum, (Ro manesque Architecture in France) (London 1912) ; Enlart,
d'archeologie fran gals& (Paris 1902) ; Revoil, H., (Architexture romane du Midi de la France) (Paris 1867) ; Viollet-le-Duc, E., 'Dictionnaire raisonnee, etc., s. v. Architecture monastique. For the Lom bard: De Dartein, (Etude sur l'architecture lombarde) (Paris 1822) ; Porter, A. K., (Lom bard Architecture> (New Haven 1916) ; (Me diaeval Vaulting> (New Haven 1910). For Ger many: Hasak (as above) • Otte, V.