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Russell

philosophy, account and received

RUSSELL, Bertrand (Arthur William), English philosopher, mathematician and pacifist: b. Trelleck, Monmouth, 18 May 1872. He is a grandson of Lord John Russell, and the heir presumptive of the second Earl, his brother. He received his education at Trinity College, Cambridge where he later became Fellow and fie e also spent some terms at Oxford and in the spring of 1914 lectured at Harvard University. In 1915 he received the Butler gold medal from Columbia University for the most distinguished work in philosophy or education during the preceding five years. After the be ginning of the European War, he was vigorous in his attempts to obtain peace by understand ing. On 14 July 1916 he was deprived of his lectureship at Trinity on account his pacifistic activities, whichahad caused him to incur a fine under the Defense of the Realm Act, and was later prevented from coming to Harvard for a second period of lecturing on account of the refusal of the British government to let him leave the country. In 1917 he was sentenced to six months' imprisonment an account of re peated violations of the Defense of the Realm Act. Russell is the protagonist of the new

mathematical logic, and at the same time per haps the most skilled dialectician among the adherents of the New Realism. His pacifism is intimately connected with an attitude toward the contemplative life which almost takes the form of a worship. He has written 'German Social Democracy) (1896) ; 'Essay on the Foundations of Geometry' (1897) ; (The Philos ophy of Lerbris> (1900) ; (The Principles of Mathematics> (1903) ; 'Philosophical Essays' (1910) ; (Principia Mathematica> (1910) ; with A. N. Whitehead, (1915); (Mysticism and Logic' (1918) ; (Why Men Fight' (1916) ; of Social Reconstruction> (1917) ; Ideals' (1918).