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RUSSELL, John, 1ST Emu. RUSSELL, Eng lish statesman, third son of John, 6th duke of Bedford: b. London, 18 Aug. 1792; d, Rich mond Park. Surrey, 28 May 1878. He was educated at Edinburgh University, where he trained himself to debate at the meetings of the Speculative Society. In July 1813 he en tered Parliament and soon gained prominence among the politicians of the day. He early took up the subject of parliamentary reform and supported the repeal of the and Cor poration Acts and Roman Catholic emancipa tion. In 1828 he had the satisfaction of seeing the Test and Corporation Acts, repealed by the Wellington ministry, and in April 1829 the Catholic Relief Bill became law. When the. Grey Cabinet was formed in 1830 Lord John Russell, then paymaster-general of the forces, was elected one of the committee of five to formulate a Reform Bill. This was brought before the House of Commons, 1 March 1831,, by him, and though he defended it clause by clause with extraordinary vigort was ulti-.

W mately rejected. Upon this the Whig ministry resigned and an appeal made to the country. The elections resulted in a majority. favorable to the bill, which received the royal sanction 7 June 1832. In Lord Melbourne's se Cab inet (1835-41) he was at first Home Secretary, and then Colonial Secretary, and on ,the, break of the Canadian rebellion, by recognizing the right of the colonies tp self-governmept, reconciled them to the mother country. From 1841 (in whichyear he became member for the city of London) to 1845, during the Peel adr ministration, Lord John Russell led the tion, but lent his influence in favor of the repeal of the corn-laws. He was Premier and was able to pass his Ecclesiastical Titles Bill of 1851, prohibiting the assumption of the ter ritorial titles by Roman Catholic bishops. Lord Derby, who followed him, soon resigned an& under the succeeding administration of Lord Aberdeen, Russell was Foreign Secretary for a short time. He also filled the post•of

president of the council from June' I854 to Feb ruary 1855. He' was Colonial Secretary under) Lord Palmerston in 1855,;and represented Great Britain in the Vienna conferences • duct of the negcitiations brought him so much unpopularity that he resigned in July of that year. When Palmerston returned to power in 1859 Lord John again became Foreign Secre tary, with a seat in the Cabinet. He took a lead ing part in regard to such political questions as the oppression of the Poles by Russia, the ag gressive policy of German powers toward Den mark and the disputes between England and the United States as to the neutrality observed during the continuance of the Civil War. He retained his seat for the city of London from June 1841 until July 1861, when he was raised to the peerage as Earl Russell. After the death of Lord Palmerston, 18 Oct 1865, Earl Russell became Prime Minister for the second time, Gladstone taking the lead in the House of Commons. During the session of 1866, in con with Gladstone, he introduced a new Reform Bill, which; failing to pass, the min istry resigned and was succeeded by that of Lord Derby. Thenceforth Earl Russell held no office in any ministry, though he always took an active part in promoting Liberal measures.

He published among other works 'History of the British Constitution) (1821); on the History of the English Government' /.

1823) • of the Affairs of Europe' 182449) ; 'Essay on the Causes or the rench Revolution> (1832) • 'Memoirs and Correspondence of Thomas Moore> (1852-56); Life and Times of Charles Fox) (1859 66) ; from Speeches of Earl Rus sell, 1859 to 1865> ; and Suum tions, 1813-73> (1875). Walpole, (Life of Lord John Russell) (1889) ; Reid, (Lord John Russell) (1895) :' Russell, R., (Early Cor respondence of Lord' John Russell> (2 vols., London 1913).