Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25 >> Solanace2e to Spain

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25

Solanace2e
Solanace2e, The Nightshade Family, An Order Of Plants Containing About 1,500 Species Arranged In 70 Genera, Mostly Herbs And Shrubs Widely Distributed In Warm Climates, And Es Pecially In Tropical America. They Are Usually Malodorous And Are Characterized By Alternate, Lobed Or Undivided Leaves, Monopetalous Flow Ers Of Various Colors ...

Solar Motor
Solar Motor, A Mechanism For Secttr Ing Motive Power From The Sun. For Many Years The Attention Of Inventors Has Been Di Rected To The Question Of Utilizing The Direct Rays Of The Sun As A Substitute For Coal, Wood Or Other Fuel; Large Burning-glasses Or Reflectors Being The General ...

Solar System
Solar System, That Collection Of Bodies Of Which The Earth On Which We Dwell Is One, And Which Are Distinguished From All Other Bodies In The Universe By Having The Sun As The Centre Of Their Motions. The Bodies Of This System May Be Classified As Follows: 1. The Sun.— ...

Solder
Solder, Sixl'er, A Fusible Alloy Of Metals Employed To Join Or Unite Metals. The Principle Involved Is That The Molten Alloy Applied Shall Partly Fuse The Metal Surfaces, Thus Creating A Metallic Union. As A Rule, The Solder Should Be Easier Of Fusion Than The Metal To Which It Is ...

Soldiers Homes
Soldiers' Homes, The General Name Of Various Institutions In The United States, Under National Or State Control, For The Care Of Sick And Disabled Soldiers And Sailors. These Homes Were The Direct Outcome Of The Civil War. The Federal Institution Is Known As The National Home For Disabled Volunteer Soldiers ...

Soldiers Three
Soldiers Three, By Rudyard Kipling, Is Thus Well Described In The Title-page Of The Original Edition, Printed In 1888 In Allahahad By The Pioneer Press As Number 1 Of A. H. Wheeler And Company's Indian Railway Li Brary:
Solidification
Solidification, The Passage Of A Sub Stance Into The Solid State, Either From A State Of Solution Or Fusion, Or Directly From The Gase Ous State. The Term Is Usually Applied, However, To The Transition From The Melted State Into The Solid Form, And It Is Only In This Sense ...

Solis Y Ribadeneira
Solis Y Ribadeneira, Soles' E Re Va-da'ne'era, Antonio De, Spanish Dramatist And Historian: B. Alcala De Henares, 18 July 1610; D. 1686. Educated At The University Of Salamanca, He There Imbibed A Strong Love For Literature And More Especially For The Stage; And Already, At The Age Of 17, He ...

Solomon
Solomon: B. Probably Between 1033 And 993 B.c.• ' D. Between 980 And 920 A.c.• The Son Of David, Icing Of Israel, By Bathsheba, For Merly The Wife Of Uriah, Was Appointed By David To Be His Successor In Preference To His Elder Brothers. He Ascended The Throne Between 12 ...

Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands, Melanesia, A Group Of Islands In The Pacific Ocean, Belonging To Great Britain And Situated Between Lat. 5° And 11° S., And Between Long. 154° And 162° 30' E. It Is An Irregular Chain Stretching In A Southeast Direction From New Pomerania To Ward The New Hebrides, 1,000 ...

Solon
Solon, S011on, Athenian Law-giver: B. Athens, About 640 "lc.; D. About 559. He Was Of A Noble Family And Some Of Its Members Were Ancestors Of Codrus. Solon In Early Life Became A Trader, Gathering By Travel A Fund Of Observa Tion And Experience, And Thus Became Enrolled Among The ...

Solutions
Solutions. In Chemistry And Physics A Solution Is Usually Defined As A Homogeneous Liquid In Which Two Or More Chemically Dis Tinct Substances Are Simultaneously Present. Many Authorities, However, Restrict The Term To Such Homogeneous Liquid Mixtures As Exhibit A Definite Osmotic Pressure (see Below). Others Extend It So As ...

Solyman I
Solyman I, El Kanouni (the Mag Nificent), Emperor Of Turkey, Son Of Selim I: B. 1493; D. Szigeth, Hungary, 1566. He Suc Ceeded His Father In 1520, Crushed A Rebellion In Syria In 1521, Concluded A Treaty Of Peace With Venice And Then Inaugurated The First Of A Long Series ...

Somaliland Protectorate
Somaliland Protectorate, A Territory On The West Coast Of Africa Under The Protection Of Great Britain, Lying Along The Gulf Of Aden From About Long. 43° To 49° E., And Extending From About Lat. 11° To 8° N. On The East And Southeast It Is Bounded By Italian Somaliland, On ...

Somerset
Somerset (ky.), Engagement At In March 1863, Gen. John Pegram, With 1,550 Cavalry And Three Guns, Started From East Tennessee On An Expedition Into Eastern Ken Tucky To Seize Beef Cattle For The Confederate Army. On 22 March He Crossed To The North Bank Of The Cumberland River, By Stigall's ...

Somerville
Somerville, Mass., City In Middlesex County, On The Mystic River And On The Fitch Burg And The Boston And Maine Railroads. The Mystic Separates The City From Chelsea On The East, Boston Is On The Southeast Boundary And Cambridge On The Southwest And West. Several Steam Railroads And Electric Lines ...

Sommerville
Sommerville, Maxwell, American Archmologist: B. Philadelphia, 1 May 1829; D. Paris, France, 6 May 1904. Having Spent Many Years In The Collection Of Precious Stones And Historical Gems, He Became An Authority Upon Glyptography And Allied Subjects And In 1894 Was Appointed Professor Of Glyptology In The University Of Pennsylvania. ...

Son Of
Son Of Giboyer_the. Emile Angier, Upholder Of Virtues Upon The French Stage, Produced In Excellent Comedy Ofthe Ses-z.f. Giboyer Le De Giboyer> ). Year Ear Ter, He Had Introduced Giboyer As A Hack Writer Ready To Sell His Pen To The Highest Bidder. In This Sequel He Made The Character ...

Sonata
Sonata, So-na'ta, A Piece Of Instrumental Music Intended To Express Various Feelings In Different Passages, According To The Variety Of Expression Of Which The Instrument Is Sus Ceptible. The Sonata Usually Begins With An Allegro Or Lively Passage, Followed By An Andante Or Adagio ,• Then A Minuet With A ...

Song Of Birds
Song Of Birds. The Voice Or Song Of Birds Results, Like That Of All Higher Vertebrates, From The Vibration Of Vocal Chords And Of A Column Of Air Passing Through The Trachea Or Windpipe. In Birds, However, The Organ Of Voice Is Double And Consists Of An Upper And A ...

Song Of Hiawatha
Song Of Hiawatha, The. 'the Song Of Hiawatha,' Which Longfellow Pub Lished In 1855, Is The Most Notable Of The Many Responses To The Demand — Very Strong During The First Half Of The 19th Century— That The Myths And Legends Of The Aborigines He Made Into A Truly American ...

Song Of Myself
Song Of Myself. The Poem In Which The American Author, Walt Whitman, Chose To Give An Account Of Himself And His Theory Of Poeti. Art. The Substance Of The Poem Forms, In A Remarkable Way, Whitman's Apologia, And To It Everyone Must Go Who Wishes To Formulate Anything Like A ...

Song Of Solomon
Song Of Solomon. See Canticles. A Well-known Spar Row (melospiza Fasciata), Found In Some One Or Other Of Its Numerous Races In All Parts Of North America Except In The Extreme North And South On The Eastern Side. The Song-sparrow May Be Readily Recognized By Its Thickly Streaked Plumage, Brown ...

Song To David
Song To David, A Notable Lyrical Poem, In 86 Stanzas Of Six Lines Each, Written By Christopher Smart (q.v.), Apparently In Lucid Intervals During His Mild Madness And Pub Lished Shortly Afterward In 1761 It Was Com Paratively Neglected Ir. Its Day, But Since Its Resuscitation In 1819 It Has ...

Songs Of Innocence And
Songs Of Innocence And Of Experience. William Blake's 'songs Of Innocence' And 'songs Of Experience' Were Originally Published As Separate Volumes, With Both Text And Illustrations Beautifully En Graved After Blake's Special Method Of Relief-etching, In 1789 And 1794 Respec Tively. They Were Republished Together About 1794 Under The Title ...

Sonnet
Sonnet, In Poetics:' (1) A Short Poem, Song Or Ballad. (2) Specifically, A Short Poem Of Prescribed Form Restricted To 14 Verses Ar Ranged According To A Fixed Disposition. The Word Came From The Italian Sonetto, Probably Derived From The Old French And Provencal Sonet, A Diminutive Of Son, Which ...

Sonnets From Venice
Sonnets From Venice. The Com Mon Consent Of Critics And General Readers Ranks Platen's
Sonnino
Sonnino, Baron Sidney Constantino, Italian Statesman: B. Pisa, 11 March 1847. His Father Was A Wealthy Tuscan Of Jewish Descent And His Mother, Née Georgina Terry, Was English. He Studied Law At The University Of Pisa And Took His Degree In 1865. His Legal Career Was Short, For He Returned ...

Sonora
Sonora, So-nifiri., Mexico; Except Chi Huahua, The Largest State Of That Republic; Bounded On The North By Arizona And New Mexico (united States), On The East By Chi Huahua, On The Southeast By Sinaloa, On The Southwest And West By The Gulf Of California, And.on The Northwest By The Territory ...

Sophists
Sophists, The Designation Applied To Cer Tain Schools Of Philosophers In Greece, Which Occupied The Transition Period Between The Older And Ruder Cosmical Philosophies, And The More Refined Subsequent Systems, Which Beginning With Socrates, Plato And Aristotle, Were Founded Primarily On The Study Of The Human Mind As The Perceiving, ...

Sophocles
Sophocles, Sopo-klez (496-406 A.c.), Was Born In The Deme Of Colonus Near Athens. His Father, Sophillus, Was A Man Of Middle Rank And Owner Of Slaves. Hence He Had The Means To Give His Son A Good Educa Tion. Naturally, Then, Sophocles Was Early In Troduced To Homer, Who Has ...

Sorbonne
Sorbonne, Seir'bon , Paris, France, A Celebrated College Of Paris, Founded In The 13th Century At The Instigation Of Robert De Sorbon (q.v.). The School Was Erected Near The Palais Des Thermes, In What Is Now The Quartier Latin. The Name Was Originally "la Communaute Des Pauvres Maitres Etudiant En ...

Sordello
Sordello, A Narrative Poem By Robert Browning (q.v.), First Published In 1840. It Is Based On The Study Of An Historical But Indefi Nite Character, Sordello, The Most Celebrated Of The Italian Troubadours, B. Mantua, At The Be Ginning Of The 13th Century, Who Owes His Fame To The Works ...

Sorghum
Sorghum, Seegilm, An Annual Cane-like Plant (holcus Sorghum), Resembling Indian Corn In General Appearance And Habit Of Growth. The Sorghums Are Without Ears, And Are Dis Tinguished By Heavy Heads Of Small Seeds Which Terminate The Stalk. (see Grasses). The Cultivated Varieties Are Usually Treated As A Distinct Species By ...

Sorrel Vine Sorrel
Sorrel, Sorrel Vine, Etc., Are The Like Names Of Several Unre Lated Plants Having Acidulous Or °sour') Foliage. The Field Or Sheep Sorrel Is The Rutnex Aceto Sella, A Common Pasture Weed, Naturalized From Europe, With Halberd-shaped Leaves, Impreg Nated With Oxalic Acid, Slender Panicled Ra Cemes Of Delicate Dicecious ...

Sorrows Of Young Werther
Sorrows Of Young Werther, The ( 'die Leiden Des Jungen Werthers)). 'werther's Leiden,' Goethe's First Novel, Was Written In Frankfort In. 1774, During The So Called Storm And Stress Period. It Is Divided Into Two Books Each Consisting Of A, Series Of Letters By Werther, With Some Reports By The ...

Sorsogon
Sorsogon, Sor-sorgon', Philippines, (1) Pueblo, Capital Of The Province Of Sorsogon, Luzon, On Bay Of Sorsogon. The Bay Is 19 Miles In Length From The Town To Its Entrance And Affords One Of The Best Harbors In The Phil Ippine Archipelago. Sorsogon Is A Port Of Call For Steamers From ...

Sorties
Sorties, Sin/tez, Homericz, Biblicm, Etc.), A Mode Of Divination By Means Of A Passage Or Verse In Some Poet's Works Or In The Bible. One Way Of Practising This Kind Of Divination Was To Open The Book At Random And To Take Whatever Passage Or Verse Is Touched By The ...

Soul
Soul, In Philosophy The Basis Of The Unity Of Individual Consciousness And Conduct. The Opinions Held As To The Nature Of This Basis Have Naturally Varied In Accordance With The Cur Rent Views As To Unity And Explanation. The Savage, For Example, Can Find No Principle Of Explanation That Is ...

Sousa
Sousa, John Philip, American Conductor, Composer And Author : B. Washington, D. C., 6 Nov. 1854, Son Of Antonio And Elizabeth Sousa. At The Age Of 11 He First Appeared In Public As Violin Soloist; At 15 He Was Teaching Harmony; In 1876 He Became One Of The First Violinists ...

South
South, Robert, English Anglican Divine: B. Hackney, 4 Sept. 1634; D. Westminster, 8 July 1716. He Was Educated At Oxford And After Traveling On The Continent Took Orders In The Church Of England In 1658. He Was Uni Versity Orator 1660-77, Became Prebendary Of Westminster In 1663, In 1667 Was ...

South Africa
South Africa, An Ambiguous Geo Graphical Term Embracing (a) Only British South Africa, Or (h) British South Africa Plus Portuguese East Africa And That Territory Known As German South-west Africa. Although The Term Is Generally Applied To That Part Of The Continent South Of The Zambesi, Below The 14th Degree ...

South African War
South African War, A Conflict (1899 1902) Between Great Britain And The South African Republic (transvaal) And The Orange Free State. A Considerable Body Of The Dutch Population Of South Africa Has Never Been Reconciled To The Rule Of The British, And Rea Sonable Grounds For Discontent Have Not Been ...

South America
South America, A Continent The Esti Mated Area Of Which Is, In Round Numbers, 7,300,000 Square Miles With An Estimated Popu Lation Of 57,000,000 In 1919. It Is Joined To Cen Tral America By The Isthmus Of Darien, The Boundary-line Between Colombia And The Re Public Of Panama Being Taken ...

South America
South America, American Diplo Matic Relations With. In 1783 The Future In Fluence Of The New-born American Republic Upon Spanish America Was Foreseen By The Appre Hensive Spanish Prime Minister, Aranda. Three Years Later Gordoqui, The Spanish Minister To The United States, Reported That Americans Would Probably Form An Establishment ...

South Bend
South Bend, Ind., City, County-seat Of Saint Joseph County, On Saint Joseph's River Near The Source Of The Kankakee River, And On The Lake Shore And Michigan Southern, The New Jersey, Indiana And Illinois, The Michigan Central, The Saint Joseph, South Bend And Southern, The Terre Haute And Indiana, The ...

South Carolina
South Carolina, A South Atlantic State Of The United States Of America, One Of The Original 13, And Popularly Called "the Palmetto State," Lies Between Lat. 32° 4' 30" And 35° 12' N. And Between Long. 78° 30' And 20' W. Its Area Is 30,989 Square Miles, Of Which 494 ...

South Dakota
South Dakota, The °sunshine One Of The North Central United States Located West Of Minnesota And Iowa, North Of Ne Braska And East Of Wyoming. It Lies Chiefly Between The 97th And 104th Degrees Of Longitude And The 43d And 46th Degrees Of Latitude. This Gives It An Area Of ...

South Mills
South Mills, Battle Of. In The Fore Part Of April, 1862, After The Capture Of Roa Noke Island And Newbern, Rumors Reached General Burnside At The Later Place That The Confederates Were Building Iron-clad Gunboats At Norfolk, Va., With The Intention Of Running Them Through The Dismal Swamp Canal And ...

Southampton
Southampton, South-amp'ton Or Sufh Hamp'ton, England, An Important Seaport Town, County And Parliamentary Borough In Hamp Shire, 71 Miles Southwest Of London, On The Innermost Angle Of The Southampton-watf14. Other Streams Almost Surround The Town, Which Occupies An Acclivity And Consists Of Two Dis Tinct Parts. The Walls Of The ...

Southern Baptist Theolog Ical
Southern Baptist Theolog Ical Seminary, Located At Louisville, Ky. It Was Established By The Southern Baptists To Provide An Institution Expressly For Theological Training And Was Opened In 1859 At Greenville, S. C. During The Civil War It Was Closed And Reopened In 1865 Under Serious Financial Diffi Culties. In ...

Southern College
Southern College, Birmingham, The Chief Educational Institution Of The Metho Dist Episcopal Church In The State Of Alabama Resulting From The Union, In 1918, Of The South Ern University, Situated At Greensboro, Ala., And Birmingham College, Situated At Birming Ham, Ala. Birmingham Being The Greater Cen Tre Of Population And ...

Southern Pacific Company
Southern Pacific Company. The Late Collis P. Huntington And His Associates, Who Had Built The Central Pa Cific Railroad, The Pacific End Of The First Trans Continental Line, And The Southern Pacific Rail Road Lines In California, Arizona And New Mexico, And Who Had Secured Control Of Cer Tain Railways ...

Southern Railway Company
Southern Railway Company. The Southern Railway Company Was Chartered Under The Laws Of Virginia, 1894, As Successor To The Richmond And West Point Terminal Railway And Warehouse Company. It Operates Main Lines In Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Missis Sippi, Kentucky, Indiana And Illinois. There Are Also ...

Southey
Southey, Robert, English Poet-laureate, Historian, Miscellaneous Writer : B. Bristol, Eng Land, 12 Aug. 1774; D. Keswick, England, 21 March 1843. His Father Was Robert Southey, A Linen Draper; His Mother Was Margaret Hill, Daughter Of Edward Hill, Gentleman, Of Bed Minster. Southey Spent Most Of His Boyhood In The ...

Southwell
Southwell, Robert, English Poet And Catholic Martyr: B. Horsham, Norfolk, About 1561; D. Tyburn, 21 Feb. 1595. He Was Edu Cated At Douai And Paris Under Jesuit Influ Ence And Was Ordained To The Priesthood In 1584. In 1586 He Returned To England, But Owing To The Laws Against Catholics ...

Southwest Virginia And Western
Stoneman's Raid In East Ten Nessee, Southwest Virginia And Western North Carolina. Early In February 1865, General Granf Directed Gen Eral Thomas To Send An Expedition Under Gen Eral Stoneman From East Tcnnessee To Pene Trate North Carolina And Well Down To Colum Bia, S. C., To Destroy The Enemy's ...

Sovereignty
Sovereignty, In Political Science The Supreme Power In A State By Which The Govern Ment Is Administered. In Republics Generally It Is Held That Sovereignty Resides In The People, But In Some Countries, Like Japan, It Is Hell That It Is Possessed By The Sovereign. Various Theories Have Been Advanced ...

Soviet
Soviet (pron. Savyet'), A Russian Word Signifying Council, Advice, Harmony, Concord ; Sovietnik -= Councillor. Under The Old Regime The Tsar's Council Of Ministers Was Called The "soviet Of Ministers," But The Term Has Been Invested With A New Meaning Since The Russian Revolution Of March 1917. The Popular Or ...

Soy Bear
Soy Bear, A Leguminous Plant (glycine Hispida), Sometimes Incorrectly Called Sofa Bean, Native To Southeastern Asia. It Has Been Cultivated From Ancient Times And In Some Countries, Notably Japan, It Forms An Important Article Of Food. It Was Introduced Into Eng Land In 1790 And Into America Some Years Later, ...

Soyeshima
Soyeshima, Tarteomi, Japanese States Man: B. Saga, Province Of Hizen. At Nagasaki In 1866 He Studied Under Guido F. Verbeck, An American Missionary, Giving Especial Attention To The United States Constitution And The New Testament. In 1868 He Became A Commissioner For Formulating Laws And Subsequently An Im Perial Councillor. ...

Space
Space, That Phase Of The World Which We Express In Terms Of Right And Left, Forward And Backward, Up And Down, Etc.; The Actual Experienced System Which We Are Accustomed To Handle By Means Of Geometry. Many Theories Have Been Held Concerning Its Nature. The An Cient Views Are Not ...

Spada
Spada, Spi'da, Leonello, Or Espada, Italian Painter : B. Bologna, 1576; D. Parma, 1622. He Became The Pupil Of Carrachos And Cesar Baglioni And An Intimate Friend And Imitator Of Caravagio Whom He Considered His Master And With Whom He Traveled. On His Master's Death He Returned To Bologna And ...

Spain
Spain (lat. Hispania, Sp. Espana), A Kingdom The Territory Of Which Ir1 Europe Em Braces More Than Four-fifths Of The Iberian Peninsula, The Small Islands Near The Coasts, The Balearic Islands And The Territory Of Llivia, Locked In France And Separated Com Pletely From The Rest Of Spain; In Northern ...