Student life and customs in schools of ele mentary and secondary grade were under the same repression as the colleges during the Middle Ages and came out from under it far less slowly than the latter. The tendency to imitate the higher institutions was very strong in all countries, and during the 19th century the secondary institutions reflected the student life and customs of the colleges and the ele mentary schools reflected those of the second ary. In large institutions of the latter grade, particularly in America, are to be found the same periodical publications, athletic sports and contests, literary clubs and fraternities, the same cohesive grouping of the student body, the same affection for °Alma as are found in the colleges. In a lesser degree and on a smaller scale the large elementary schools reproduce the same life.
The drunkenness and licentiousness which used to prevail in American colleges previous to the close of the 19th century had very largely disappeared in the earlier years of the 20th. College pranks resulting in the destruc tion of property had become fewer in number and °rough house)) tactics in secondary school life had ceased to be so fashionable. In the matter of the elimination of drinking in the colleges, America had progressed far more rapidly than the countries of Europe. Duelling such as prevailed in German universities had never taken root in America.
The establishment of academies and, later, colleges for girls in America in the 19th cen tury led to their own development of college life and customs. These very rapidly took on the color of almost exact imitations of those which had grown up in the institutions for men. The publications, literary clubs, sororities (in stead of fraternities) and even athletic con tests resembled those of the men. Though drinking never prevailed to any extent, cigar ette smoking among the young women in Amer ican colleges is on the increase.
As the secondary and elementary schools for boys imitated in the life and customs of the students the doings of the colleges for men, so the elementary and secondary schools for girls tended to imitate the colleges for women.
In England such close imitation of the life and customs of men's institutions by the women is not found, and on the continent of Europe the life and customs in institutions for girls is very much more restricted. In fact there is about them the same atmosphere that pre vailed about the institutions for boys in the earlier Middle Ages.
No one book covers the subject in all ages, in all countries and in educational institutions of varying grades. In formation must be sought in treatises on edu cation covering various periods of history and separate countries, and even separate institu tions. (For an extended list of books see the bibliographies referred to in the article: EDU CATION, HISTORY Or). Information of particular value will be found in the following: Alex ander,