Lord Baltimore came to establish a "Palat inate,* a palace county. He was made absolute lord of a vast territory with powers to declare war, collect taxes, create legislatures and ap point judges. But knowing from experience the heavy hand of religious bigotry, his autocracy was a benign one. It offered hospitality to the persecuted in all lands and established many precedents precious to liberty, The Quaker spirit represented by William Penn and his associates and successors was and is a pervasive influence, making for toleration, peace and co-operation. While the dreams which the free-thinking philosophers above mentioned tried to realize in South Carolina may be taken as forerunners of many sociolog ical ventures on communistic or ideal lines that have followed, perhaps the most suggestive and creative of which was the work of Robert Owen at New Harmony, Ind. At any rate, from New Harmony to Altruria, the story is an attractive one to the social philosopher and a potent one in the interest of civil and religious liberty.
The law of the land demands toleration, but spiritual freedom goes further and demands appreciation and fellowship in the things about which men honestly differ. He who would study closely the development of religious lib erty in America must note the discussions and agitations that gathered about the following epoch-marking addresses: Channing's Balti more address (1818) ; Emerson's Divinity School address, which, to use his own words, "caused such a tempest in the Unitarian wash bowl,* and in consequence of which Harvard for 30 years practically exiled its most illustri ous alumnus from the platform of the freest university in America (1838)i Theodore Par ker's discourse on 'The Transient and the Per manent in Christianity) (1841) ; William C. Gannett's address on 'The Faith of Ethics' The growth of the spirit of religious liberty may be further traced by a close study of the most noted religious controversies in our his tory, among which were the discussion concern ing the teachings of Horace Bushnell (1839-54) by the Congregationalists of New England; the withdrawal of Henry Ward Beecher (1882) from the local Congregational Association to which he belonged; the trial of David Swing (1874) by the Presbyterians of Chicago and of (1 Hiram W. Thomas ::1) by the Methodists of
Chicago. Significant also in the history of re ligious liberty is the organization of the Free Religious Association in Boston (1867) and the holding of the Parliament of Religions in Chi cago (1893). This was the most significant re ligious conclave ever held, perhaps the noblest corporate event in the history of religion. This was followed the next year (1894) by the or ganization of the Congress of Religion in Chi cago and the subsequent organization of the New York Conference of Religion, a similar organization within State limits. Significant in dications of the growth of this spirit of co operation, which sprint's out of the spirit of religious liberty, are found in the numerous interdenominational organizations for practical work, such as the Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations, the Christian Endeavor movement, the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, the Chautauqua movement and the various combinations for missionary work at home and abroad.
The development of civil and religious lib erty is still incomplete; it still behooves "the committee to be on the But the great advancement made in this direction is a magnifi cent guarantee of greater progress yet to be made. The high achievements already realized will inspire a continued zeal to evoke the new wisdom and fresh courage which the future of America will demand. See LtaErrv, RELIGIOUS.
Bibliography.— Bury, J. B. (History of Freedom of Thought' (New York 1913) ; Cobb, S. H., (Rise of Religious Liberty in America); Mill, J. S., On Liberty' (New York 1909).