52 Railroad Transportation

freight, cars, service, car, railroads, special and regular

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Although there has been a tendency to es tablish graded distance rate scales a large num ber of group rates applying uniformly through out defined areas remain in effect in many parts of the United States. Even in the North At lantic States where distance largely controls the rates from the Central West to the large sea ports, group rates apply to large areas inland from Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Bal timore.

Freight an4 Passenger Freight trains are of two general kinds — tonnage trains which move forward when the desired number of cars are loaded or when the officials in charge of operation consider it expedient, and scheduled freight trains which are dispatched at regular times. The latter usually carry perish high-class freight and commodi ties.in the delivery of which speed is important. On some lines extensive arrangements have been made for expediting °time," "fast" or °preference" freight by means of special bill ing, car placards, telegraphic reports and spe cial operating regulations. In certain indus tries, particularly in the fresh fruit and vege table, meat products, oil, coal and livestock in dustries, much freight moves in privately owned freight cars. Some of these cars are owned di rectly by shippers, and others by private car line companies, most of which, except in the case of palace livestock cars, are subsidiaries of shippers. The freight rates paid by shippers using their own cars are the same as those paid by other shippers, but the private car owners re ceive a mileage allowance from the railroads as a rental for the use of their cars. In case of private refrigerator cars the icing charge col lected from the shipping public by the railroads, moreover, reverts to the private car line if it performs the icing service. Many special freight services are performed and privileges granted by the railroads. They are in some in stances covered by the regular line haul freight rate, while in others the shipper or consignee is required to pay special charges. Important ex amples are the reconsignment privilege, stop ping in transit, switching and spotting cars, the peddler car service, the milling in transit privi lege in the flour and lumber industries, the fab rication in transit privilege in the iron and steel industry, the recompressing privilege in the cot ton industry and the in-transit privilege which has been extended to various western wool cen tres. Somewhat different are the demurrage and

storage charges of the railroads, for they are primarily penalties designed to release equipment and station or warehouse space. Carload ship pers and companies are required to load and unload freight cars within a specified free time or pay a demurrage charge per car per day after its expiration. Consignees of less than carload shipments are similarly required to re move their freight from the freight station or other delivery point within a specified free time or on their failure to do so to pay railroad stor age charges; and, in case the freight is sent to a public warehouse by the carrier, also whatever cartage and public warehouse charges are in curred.

Passenger services in the United States are not classified as systematically as in Europe, but a number of rather well-defined classes have developed. The Pullman and parlor-car service corresponds roughly to the first-class service of European railways, and the regular first class, day-ooach service corresponds roughly to the second-class service provided in Europe. American railroads do not regularly provide services similar to the third-class serv ice generally found in Europe and the fourth class service provided in some countries. In some parts of the United States, however, the railroads perform a second-class service which varies widely in definition and quality. In instances nstances it bars the passenger from the Pullman and parlor-cars, but permits him to occupy the regular day coaches; in some it en ables him to occupy. a tourist sleeper ; in others it limits him to a smoking-car, a special second class day coach, or to the regular day coaches of designated trains. Bona fide immigrants arriv ing at certain ports have for some years been provided with a special immigrant service at very low fares and mention should also be made of the colonist, harvester and special excursion services which were offered from time to time in the past, but were largely restricted during the war.

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