The modern requirements called for air, chemical, gas and many other new services which had to be created in our army. All were thoroughly organized and functioning in the final campaign but in the course of another year would have been capable of great develop ment. The army medical service had an ex traordinarily healthy army to deal with but there were a vast number of wounded to be cared for and it was noticeable that the time had not sufficed to standardize this service. Hospitals were excellent, good or fair according to the individual merit of the local commanding officer. The American armies were the best paid and best fed armies in the war. They proved of the very highest fighting value due to the superb morale of the rank and file. They went to Europe determined to win or die in the attempt. The survivors came back, were mus tered out and have returned to civil pursuits with a zest that echoes their oft-expressed desire to "get it over with." A magnificent victory in the greatest of all wars has failed to alter in the slightest degree the national sentiment toward military affairs in general and wars in particular. The regular army will doubtless be somewhat larger and undoubtedly both it and the National Guard will show marked improve went in professional attainments. The nation at large will continue to believe in the invincible courage of all its sons and the continued pres ence of a providence which beqpeaths victories. An important task confronting the army will be the reconciling of that attitude to the necessity that the nation shall provide in peace for the scientific preparation against war which is likely to be the, surest insurance against future disaster, The American Expeditionary Force or A.E,F. as it was called developed in France a well organized general staff, an essential feature of army economy and efficiency.
" General John J. Pershing the commander-in chief of the American Expeditionary Forces promptly recognized the necessity for a general staff and as the American army had heretofore been destitute of this important department he proceeded to organize one based upon the war experience of the veteran French and British armies. The responsibilities of the general staff were divided into five groups each with a chief functioning as an assistant to the chief of Alec general staff : Group 1. Organization and Equipment of Troops. Group 2. Censorship, Enemy Intelligence, Information, Preparation of Maps, etc.
Group 3. Strategic Plans, Movement of Troops, Super vision of Combat Operations.
Group 4. Co-ordination of supply, Construction, Trans port for Combat, Hospitalization and Evacuation of Sick and Wounded.
Group 5. Schools and Co-ordination of Education and Training.
The first units of the expeditionary army reached France in June 1917.
The combatant forces were organized into divisions consisting of four regiments of in fantry of 3,000 men with three battalions to the regiment and four companies of 250 men each to a battalion, and an artillery brigade of three regiments, a machine gun battalion, an engineer regiment, a trench-mortar battery, a signal battalion, wagon trains, headquarters staff and military police. The above with medical
and other units gave a total divisional strength of over 28,000 men, about double the size of a French or German division.
Each corps was to consist of six divisions (four combat, one depot, -one replacement) with two regiments of cavalry.
Each army was to have from three to five corps.
A great system of army schools was organ ized in France with headquarters at Langres where the principles of general staff work were taught, and men who had shown qualities for leadership were fitted for commissions.
A school of the line taught young officers leadership ref and the use of different weapons, including the various types of hand grenades, trench mortars, etc., peculiar to trench warfare, The artillery school was at Saumur. The aviation school at Issoudun.
The departments of the adjutant-general, in spector-general and judge-advocate-general re mained with the general headquarters at Chau mont.
The administrative and supply services were transferred to the headquarters of the Service of Supply (the S. 0. S.) at Tours and included the chief quartermaster, chief surgeon, chief signal officer, chief of ordnance, chief of air 'service, chief of chemical warfare, general pur chasing agent, provost-marshal-general, director general of transportation and chief engineer. The chiefs of all these branches of the service were subordinate to the commanding general of the service of supply, who was assisted by a large staff charged with the administrative co operation of the various departments.
Great storage depots were built at La Pallice, Montoire and Gievres. Hospitals and barracks were constructed at many places in France. Enormous additions were built at the ports and on the lines of railway communications. The forestry service cut an immense amount of timber required by the engineer corps.
The American Expeditionary Forces en gaged in the heavy fighting of 1918 were in debted to the French entirely for the light artil lery which made the advance of our infantry possible. American manufacturers had started to the required modern artil lery, not one such weapon was in service at the front up to the time the armistice was signed. The French army furnished for our aviation service 2,676 aeroplanes of pursuit, observation and bombing types. After May 1918 1,379 planes arrived in France from the Unite1 States.
While our forces were never sufficiently sup plied with tanks we were indebted for all we had to the French.
In order that the moral welfare and the physical comfort of the millions of young American soldiers serving in a foreign country should be cared for as fully as possible the American commander gave every possible as sistance and encouragement to the Young Men's Christian Association, Knights of Columbus, Salvation Army and Jewish Welfare Board. The Red Cross ministered to our soldiers with an efficiency and devotion incomparable on every line of communication and in every hos pital.