WESTPHALIA, west-fill-a, or WEST FALEN, vst"fi'll•rt, Germany, a name origi nally given (n to a large region of Germany; (2) to a duchy: (3) to an ancient imperial circle; (4) to a kingdom; (5) to a province of Prussia. These various divisions will he de scribed in the above 1. The name of Westphalia was given from the second half of the 8th century to the west ern part of the ancient Duchy of Saxony in corporated by Charlemagne in the the Franks, that is, to all the country the Weser and Rhine while the territory be tween the Elbe and Weser was called East pisaha (Ostfalen). The latter name was lost after the dissolution of the Duchy of Saxony in 1180; the former was retained and was ap plied in the first place to a newly erected duchy.
2. Duchy of Westphalia-- This was formed out of the part of the old Duchy of Saxony, then and still called Siiderland or Sauerland, an the Upper Ruhr and Lenne. When Henry the Lion, the last of the old dukes of Saxony, was pin under the ban of the empire, this terri tory was taken possession of by Philip of Heins berg. achlishop of Cologne, who obtained the title of duke from Frederick Barbarossa.
in possession of it until the ion of the archbishopric in 1801. upon which it was given, by way of indemnity, to Hesse-Darmstadt In 1815 it was ceded by this power to Prussia and was united with the Prus sian province of Westphalia.
3. Circle of Westphalia, one of the 10 circles into which the empire of Germany was divided by Maximilian I in 1512. It comprised the region betweati Litimet Saxony, the Nether lands, Thuringia and Hesse, as well as con siderable tracts on the left bank of the Rhine; but the proper Duchy of Westphalia, as an ap pendage of Cologne, was considered as belong s', to the electoral circle of the Rhine. Its total area was 22,175 square miles.
4. Kingdom of Westphalia.— The Peace of Tani ti4y Ben had made Napoleon master of all the Prussian territory west of the Elbe sad be also kept possession of the territories of the electors of Hesse and Hanover and the Doke of Brunswick. Out of the countries just meaticasecl he created by decree of 18 Aug. WO; a kingdom of Westphalia, with an area M 14.712 square miles and a population of Party 2.000,000 Napvicoo Kati, the kingdom to `is' ouagest bt-ther. terrai-. and on 15 Nov.
1807 a constitu ,,a, the French was Fainted to it. line insurrections that broke out m sescral parts in 1809 occasioned the adoption of various severe measures, and the introduction of an oppressive It; •o-ni of polo iSt the same time the king was equired to 1 g his army tip to a strength of 41,000 men, winch produced great disorder in ' ' ' ' -. I ' ' 1810 a part of Hanover was added to the kingdom, the whole area of which was now 17,540 square silks. After the battle of Leipzig (1813) the kingdom was dissolved. On 35 October, Jerome was obliged to quit his capital (Cassel) and stake his escape from the kingdom, whereupon the territories of which it was composed re turned to their former possessors.
S. The Pmssian Province of Westphalia was formed in 1815 tint of some of the prov isms which Prussia formerly possessed in the circle of Westphalia. It is bonnded on the meth by the prosinee of Hanover; on the east by Hanover, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe-Det maiBrunswick, Hesse-Nassau and the prin.
of Waldeck: south by the province of sse-Nassan, and west by the province of the Rhine and the kingdom of Holland. Its area is 7/100 square miles. The capital is Munster. The province In the south and northeast is modhtainons, being traversed by the tersrald, Rothhaar, Tetnoburgerwald and the Wevergebirge. The northwest spreads out into extensive and often marshy plains and be longs to the bacin of the Faro; the northeast and a small part of the east to the basin of the Weser; the remainder. constituting the far larger portion of the whole, belongs to the basin of the Rhine. The soil is in general tar from fertile. Livestock are numerous, par ticularly horned cattle, sheep and swine; the hams made from the latter have long been famous. The staple manufacture is linen, but that of iron is also very extensive. The region possesses the principal Prussian deposits of iron and coal and these were heavily drawn upon during the World War. Other minerals mined include copper, lead, zinc and salt. The province is divided into the three governments of Mun ster, Minden and Arnsberg. The population is about 4250,000.