WURZBURG, Bavaria, city and capital of Lower Franconia, on the river Main, 62 miles southeast of Frankfort and at the junc tion of the main railway lines to Nuremberg and Bamberg. The river is crossed here by three bridges, of which the first is a stone structure built in 1474-1607; while the modern bridges were built in 1887 and in 1894. The town is built on both sides of the river, but the main portion of it is on the north bank. The older portion of the city is of quaint and irregular pattern, but the modern suburbs are handsomely laid out, with broad promenades. There arc many medieval buildings in a good state of preservation and several ancient churches. Among the churches are the Ro uiancsque cathedral dating from 1042-1189, with additions of later date; the Marienkapelle, a Gothic structure built in 1377-1441; the Hanger stiffs Church, in Italian Renaissance style, 1670-01; the Neumunster Church, dating from the 11th century. and the church of Saint Burk hard, built in 1033-44. A notable structure is the palace, built in 1720-44 as a residence for the bishops and grand dukes of NN'ilrzburg The bishopric dates from 741, but the tovn existed earlier. From the 12th century the
bishops had ducal authority. The bishopric was secularized by the Peace of Luneville in 1803. and \\ uratorg came under Bavarian control. By the Peace of Pre,-burg in 1805 it became an electerate tinder Ferdinand Ill. former grand duke of any, vho t-ok the title of Grand f)uk, of \\ joined the confedera of the Rho:, It vas rt,tored to Bavaria in 1815. A new bishopric, without ducal au thority, was established in 1817. The city was bombarded and captured by the Prussians in 1866.
The University of Wfirzburg (co.) adds considerably to the importance of the town. and there are also schools of agriculture and horticulture, a royal music school and other educational institutions. The city is surrounded by vineyards which produce excellent wine Manufactures include furniture, machinery, scientific instruments, railway carriages, brick, chocolate, beer, malt and vinegar. It is an im portant commercial centre. Pop. about 84.4%.