ZINZENDORF, Nicholas Ludwig, COUNT vox, German religious leader, founder of the Society of United Brethren: b. Dresden, Saxony, 26 May 1700; d. Herrnhut, Upper Lusatia, 9 May 1760. From 1716 to 1719 he studied at the orthodox University of Wit tenberg, and subsequently traveled in Holland and France, describing his journey in 'The Pilgrimage of Atticus through the World.' In 1721 he received an appointment to the council of state from the Saxon government, which he held till 1727. He then completely withdrew from public affairs. He received at his estate in Upper Lusatia in 1722 the persecuted Mora vian Brethren. This settlement received in 1724 the name of Herrnhut. With a view to founding the body called the United Brethren (q.v,), he published various projects, not in harmony with each other, which excited opposi tion, but he persevered m his plan and finally succeeded in establishing a religious order based on family instead of monastic conditions. In 1734 he passed a theological examination under an assumed name, and was ordained a clergy man of the Lutheran Church. After two years spent in traveling on behalf of his society, he was banished in 1736 from Saxony. The order of his banishment was repealed in 1747. In the meantime he had been consecrated bishop of the Moravian Church in Berlin, founded Moravian colonies in Holland, Esthonia and Livonia, and visited England. In 1739 he wrote
a catechism which he styled the 'Good Word of the Lord,' and the same year visited the mis sions of the Brethren in the West li.dies. In 1741 he visited the United States and founded the well-known Moravian colony at Bethlehem, Pa., and before returning to Germany in 1743 assisted m establishing missions among the Indian tribes. After returning to Europe he made a journey to Livonia, whence the Russian government sent him back ender a military escort to the frontier. He afterward visited Holland, spent several rears in England, and obtained an act of Parliament for the protec tion of his followers in the British dominions. He wrote more than 100 works in prose and verse. A collection of his hymns, edited by Knapp, appeared in 1845. His 'Diary' was published (1907). Consult the (Lives' by Span genberg, A. G. (1772-75) ; Eng. trans., abridged. London 1838) and Ramer, H. (Gnadau 1900) ; also, Plitt, H., (Zinzendorrs Theologie (3 vols., Gotha, 1869-74), and Becker, B., (Zin zendorf und sein Christentum im Verbilthis zum kirchlichen und religiosen Leben seiner Zeit' (1886; 2d ed., Leipzig 1900) • Williston, W., 'Great Men of the Christian Church' (Chicago 1908).