ZUEBLIN, Charles, American sociologist: b. Pendleton, Ind., 4 May 1866. He studied at the University of Pennsylvania, was graduated at Northwestern University in 1887 and at Yak in 1889. later studying at Leipzig. He became an instructor in sociology at the University of Chicago in 1892; was assistant professor in 1895; associate professor from 1895 to 1902; and was professor of sociology there in 1902-06. He edited the Twentieth Century Magazine in 1911 12. He is well known as a lecturer and maga zine contributor. Author of 'American Munic ipal Progress' (1902); 'A Decade of Our Development' (1905); 'Religion and a Demo crat' (1905); 'Democracy and die Overman' (1911), etc.
ZUG, tsoog or zoog, Switzerland; (1) The capital of the canton of the same name, on the northeast shore of Lake Zug, 12 miles by rail northeast of Lucerne. It is popular as a pleas tire resort and has fine scenery although it is located in the hilly rather than the mountainous part of Switzerland. The earliest mention of the town is in 1240. It has splendid old man sions and strong watch-towers; several interest ing churches; a Capuchin monastery and a con vent; a cantonal government building in Renal... sance style; a fine town-house in late Gothic style, with a museum of antiquities; an ar senal: manufactures of cottons, enamel-ware. metal goods, tobacco, cigars, soap, etc_ In 143S, 1594 and 1887 portions of the town sank into the lake. Pop. about 8,038. (2) A central and the smallest undivided cantos of Switzerland, bounded by Zurich, Lucerne and Aargau, and with Zurich and Lucerne. The surface, which is generally mountainous in the southeast and south, where the Rossberg occupies the frontier, slopes more or less gradually north and west till it becomes comparatively flat. The portion of Lake Zug within its borders occupies 10 square miles; while Lake /Eger, wholly within its borders, occupies two and three-fourths square miles. Of its total area of 92 square miles about 75 square miles are under cultiva tion. The battle of Morgarten, won by the Swiss 5 Nov. 1315, was fought within its bound aries. The climate, rigorous in the mountain ous districts, is mild on the lower southern slopes. The chief exports are cattle, fruits, cider and skirschwasser.• Pop. about 20013. (3) A lake chiefly in the canton of Zug, but partly also in Lucerne and Schwyz. It is. 1,368 feet above sea-level; 12 miles long north to south, and varies in breadth from three miles to one mile at the centre. The
shores are low in all directions except the south and southeast. In the former direction the Righi, with Mount Pilatus towering behind it, and in the latter the Rufiberg or Rossberg (5,1% feet), rise in abrupt and lofty precipices, pre senting scenery of the grandest description. At the foot of the Rossberg the depth of the lake is not less than 650 feet. Steamers ply upon it, and the fishing, principally of pike and carp, is very productive.
zrder ze (Dutch, soidir-s4), or ZUYDER ZEE, or SOUTH SEA (as op posed to the North Sea), Netherlands, a large gulf pentrating deeply between the provinces of Friesland, 0%er)ssel, Gelderland, Utrecht and North Holland; about 80 miles long, 45 milts greatest breadth, but only 10 miles broad be tween Etikhuizen and Stavoren. The islands Texel, Vlieland, Terschelling, Ameland, and several smaller islands separate it from the North Sea, with which it communicates by va rious channels, the principal being Marsdiep, H between the elder and Texcl, and the Vhe Strom between Vlieland and Terchelling. It contains the islands of NNieringen, Marken, Urk, and Scbokland, and numerous sandbanks, espe cially in its northern portion; has on its shores towns, and receives the waters of the Yssel, Vecht, Ecm Kuinder, and other streams; but is generally shallow, and only navigable by vessels of small draft, much of its area being only three feet in depth, while its maximum depth. in the southern portion of the former lake, is only 19 feet. Oysters and plaice are plentiful. The Zuider-Zee is of modern origin, having been formed chiefly since the 12th cen tury by successive irruptions of the sea. In ear lier limes there were here only a lake and marshes, the lake being called Fl, vo by Pliny and Tacitus. The reclamation of the greater portion of the Zuider-Zee has long born a pet project with the Dutch and plans for the work were formulated as early as Dtvii. Rut while the arra thus available was much to he desired. financial considerations barred the way for many years. However, a bill authorizing the work which is to create a new province became a law 14 June 1918. The area to be reclaimed Is 523,000 acres, of which it is estimated about 475,000 will be fertile. The completion of the work will require 15 years and the cost is fig ured at 66,250,000 florins. A dike is to be built from the island of Weiringen to the coast of Friesland, a distance of 15 miles; and the land then drained and prepared for cultivation.