The chainber music includes 8 trios for piano and 'cello; 5 trios, 16 quartets and 2 quintets for strings; 10 sonatas for piano with violin, 5 with 'cello, 1 with horn, 3 sextets and 1 septet for string and wind instruments; 2 octets for wind. The quartets have been made tolerably familiar, but among the other works here re ferred to there are many gems of which the public is still unaware. But it is when we come to the orchestral works —the 11 overtures, and 9 symphonies — that we see Beethoven in his real grandeur. Of these works Richard Wag ner, who worshipped Beethoven, has written most eloquently (see index to vol. I of Glase napp's < Wagner Encyclopidie,) or to Ellis's translation of Wagner's prose works; Grove's
While Beethoven stands at the head of com posers of the classical school, an almost equal claim to distinction lies in this that in his works are to he found many of the germs which Weber, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schumann and others developed into the German romantic school. Among these germs are his inclination to shatter the sonata form (particularly in the last movement of the ninth symphony, which is epoch-making in its bold unconventionality) ; his disposition to allow his ideas to shape the form in which they are to be uttered; the subjective expressiveness of his music, which has five times as many expression marks as Mozart's; the use of characteristic (realistic) orchestral colors; his way of playing the pianoforte and conducting an orchestra, with tempo rubato, or frequent modification of pace; and above all, his sanctioning of program music by his 'Pastoral Symphony,' which illus trates episodes in the country—a scene at a brook, the merrymaking of peasants, the song of birds and a thunderstorm. It is also signifi
cant of his romantic inclinations that toward the end of his life he conceived a plan of giv ing poetic titles to all his sonatas and even to the separate movements. The 'Moonlight sonata,' it is well to remember, did not get its inappropriate name from him.
Bibliography.— Several boolcs have already been referred to. Of the biographies the best was written in English by the American A. W. Thayer and published, in a German version only (Vols. I-III, Berlin 1866-77; Vols. IV, V, Leipzig 1907-08). Thayer also furnished a useful (Chronologisches Verzeichniss) of Bee thoven's works, of which a complete edition was printed by Breitkopf and Hanel in 1864-67. Another important work in this connection is G. Nottebohm's, 'Thematisches Verzeichniss der Werke Beethovens' (Leipzig 1913). Consult also Bekker, P., Beethoven' (Berlin 1911) ; Kalischer, A. C., 'Beethoven und seine Zeitgenossen' (4 vols., Leipzig 1910) ; Kerst, F., 'Beethoven im eignen Wort' (Berlin 1904; English trans. by Henry E. Krehbiel, New York 1905) ; Nohl, L., 'Beethoven's Leber0 (3 vols., Berlin 1867; revised by P. Sakolowski, Berlin 1912) ; Schindler, A., 'Biographie von Ludwig van Beethoven' (Munster 1840) ; Marx, A. B., 'Ludwig van Beethoven, Leben und Schaffen) (2 vols., Berlin 1884) ; Wegeler, F. G., and Ries, F., 'Biographische Notizen iiber Ludwig van Beethoven' (Coblentz 1838; reprinted by A. C. Kalischer, Leiprig 1906). For analyses of his sonatas and symphonies consult Grove, G., 'Beethoven and his Nine Symphonies' (London 1896) ; Helm, Th., 'Beethoven's Streichquartette) (Leipzig 1910); Lenz, W., 'Beethoven et ses trois styles' (2 vols., Paris 1855; new edition by D. Calvo coressi, Paris 1909) ; Nesieht, R., 'Das goldene Zeitalter der Klaviersonate' (Cologne 1910) ; Reinecke, C., 'Die Beethovenschen Klavier sonaten) (Leipzig 1897; English trans., London 1898) ; Nagel, W., Beethoven und seine Klaviersonaten) (2 vols., Langensalza 1904). For Beethoven's correspondence con sult the selections by Leichtentritt, H. (Ber lin 1912) ; Leitzmann, A. (Leipzig 1909) ; Sachs, C. (Berlin 1909) ; Thomas-San-Galli, W. A. (Halle 1910) and Kalischer, A. C., 'Bee thoven's sammtliche Briefe) (5 vols., Berlin 1908; English trans. by J. S. Shedlock, Lon don 1909) and Prelinger, F., 'L. van Bee thoven's sammtliche Briefe und Aufzeichnun gen' (4 vols., Vienna 1908). A yearbook en titled Beethoven Forschung has been issued at Vienna since 1911.