Rum, formerly spelled as the French still spell it urhum,D is a spirit which is distilled f rom tile sugar-cane juice, from the skimmings of the juice from the boiling house, or from the molasses mixed with the lees of former distilla tions. Although not so commonly used as some of the other strong liquors rum has been known both for its medicinal value and as a beverage ever since its introduction from the West Indies, more than a century ago.
The following are among the drinks which are not so generally known but which are in common use among the people of other coun tries: Arrack, a drink manufactured widely in the East and VVest Indiest is much used by the natives. In making it it is sometimes distilled from the fermented juice of the palm tree, and sometimes from a combination of rice and mo lasses used in connection with the palm-tree jUiCes.
Vodka, which is the chief source of intoxica tion in Rttssia, is a liquot which may be dis tilled either from rye or from potatoes.
In several parts of the world the sap of trees is called into reqisition to satisfy the thirst for intoxicants. Pulque, for example, the bev erage most commonly used in all Spanish American countries, is made from the fertnented sap of the aloe, while a somewhat different drink, called Tepache, is made by mixing sugar and water with this sap of the aloe, which after ward is allowed to ferment for a few hours only. In Tasmania the so-called ccider-treeo furnishes the bushmen with a rneans of intoxi cation. In this case the sap is of such a char acter that it may be drunk as soon as it is drawn frotn the tree, in which state it is both refresh ing and harmless, but when it is allowed to stand for some time it becomes art intoxicant of great potency.
The Soma of the Hindus is supposed by some to have been the original intoxicant of the human race. The Persians, who accept this tradition, revere the beverage as Hactina, while in India it is looked upon as the beverage of the mighty god, ever-giving new strength and new vigor. It is a milky fluid whidi is found in the climbing bindweed, and, when property fer mented, is extremely ((heady?) Sake, the commonly used 'distilled liquor of japan, is made entirely from rice, as also is Samshee, a drink used by the lower classes in China.
Kvass is the name of a sour beer much fa vored by the Russian peasantry. It is made from barley and rye, by a similar malting proc ess as that applied to the tnanufacture of beer.
The natives of South America have a drinlc which they call Guarapo, which is made from the fermented juice of the sugar-cane.
Chi-chi is the name of a peculiar kind of cider which is made by the natives of Patagonia. In brewing it, in the autumn when the apples are ripe, they dig large pits which they line and interline most carefully with hides in order that none of the juice may soak into the earth. Into these hides they throw the ripe apples which are left to decay and ferment until they are ready for use. It as then extremely intoxt eating.
A drink called Kephir is drunk by the natives of the Caucasus. It is an effervescing milk like liquid, the effervescence being caused by the introduction of horny, yellowish-brown masses called (Kephir-grains.D Kern, who made a scientific examination of these grains. discovered that they were made of a rod-like bacterium and a yeast-like substance that was entirely unknown to him. Not unlike Kumyss in appearance and in taste, Kephir is far more intoxicating.
Kava, or ava, is a Polynesian drink which is tnade by macerating in water a portion of the root and stem of one of the piperaceze.
There are several substitutes for tea in use in various parts of the world. In some of the Pacific Islands there are utea-trees,)) while the natives of Tibet are very fond of their °brick tea,)) which is made from the offscourings and dust of the leaves and stems of the tea plants. It derives its name from the fact.that the dust is pressed into hard, solid, bricic-shaped lumps, from which pieces are chipped off as they are to be used.