BOURNE, Francis Cardinal, English Catholic clergyman: b. Clapham, 23 March 1861. His father was a convect to the Church, and the future archbishop was educated at Ushaw; at Old Hall, Ware; at Saint Sulpice, Paris, and at Louvain University. He was or dained in 1884 by Bishop Coffin and spent the next five years as assistant priest at Black heath, Mortlake and West Grinstead, where, having the spiritual care of boys, he showed that interest in their training and fortunes which had been fostered by a stay with the Salesians in Turin. Already devoted to the education of priests in its earlier stages, he left the orphan boys at West Grinstead in 1889, at the call of Bishop Butt, to found the dio cesan seminary at Wonersh. He retained the rectorship there till 1898, together with the chair of moral theology and Holy Scripture, and made the institution so much of a model that it became, in a sense, the precedent for separate diocesan seminaries and the best illus tration of arguments he himself set forth in a series of still quoted articles in The Tablet. In 1896 he was consecrated titular bishop of Epiphania and coadjutor to the bishop of South wark, whom he succeeded in 1897. In Septem ber of that year the new bishop took a lead ing part in the Saint Augustine celebrations at Ebbsfleet and a little later he accompanied Cardinal Vaughan to Arles, a journey of mem orable impressions. In the Southwark diocese a nexus of social and "rescue" enterprises was formed under his rule. He enlisted lay co
operation in rescue work, and, adopting Car dinal Vaughan's watchword of "personal serv ice," he established two ladies' settlements for work amongst the poor. The development of Catholic boys' brigades, which marked his stay in Southwark, was the outcome of his old in terest on boys' behalf. While yet the young est member of the English episcopate, he was translated to Westminster as Cardinal Vaughan's successor in August 1903. As the fourth of a glorious lineŚWiseman, Manning, Vaughan, Bourne Ś he has a heritage of great traditions, understood, respected, yet interpreted and tempered in accord with the needs and ideals of a new generation. A strong man in his quietness and confidence, he made that strength felt, to the admiration of all England, in his conduct of the Eucharistic Congress of 1908, and especially in his handling of the diffi cult position created by the action of the gov ernment in regard to the proposed procession of the Blessed Sacrament in the public streets. At the consistory held in November 1911, the archbishop assumed "the hire of Westmin ster," his elevation to the cardinalate being hailed with joy by his flock and with satisfac tion by his countrymen in general. In 1914 he assisted, with Cardinal Gasquet, at the conclave which elected Benedict XV to the see of Rome.