CHALONS-SUR-MARNE, sha-lefi siir marn, France, a city and capital of the depart ment of Marne (Champagne), 107 miles east of Paris. It lies principally on the right bank of the Marne, here crossed by a stone bridge of three arches, built in 1787. Low walls now supply the place of the old ramparts, the en trance being by six gates, which open to six main roads. The principal public buildings are the cathedral of Saint Etienne, destroyed by fire in the 13th century, and restored by Louis XIV; the church of Notre Dame, of the 12th and 13th centuries, and now restored; the Hotel de Ville, built in 1772; the Hotel de la Prefecture, built in 1764, one of the finest build ings of the kind in France; public library, mus eum, hospital, etc. There is a promenade, occupy ing about 18 acres, formerly planted with superb elm trees, which the Germans cut down for fuel during the Franco-Prussian War. Chalons is
the seat of a bishopric, and of one of the schools of arts trades, where 300 pupils are maintained and instructed at the public ex pense. There are manufactures of woolen and cotton goods; cotton mills, tanneries, etc. Chalons was fortified and embellished by the Romans. Christianity was preached, here about the year 250. On the plains between Chalons and Troyes Attila suffered defeat in 451. From the loth century it formed a kind of independent state, governed by its bishops, till 1360, when it was united to the Crown. A celebrated camp was established by Napoleon III in 1856, at the distance of about 18 miles from Chalons, for the purpose of training the French troops. In 1870 the town was occupied by the Germans after MacMahon's withdrawal, Pop. of commune 31,367.