CHARLESTON, S. C., Attacks on. In May 1776 a British squadron under Peter Parker with troops under Sir Henry Clinton (q.v.) sailed to reduce South Carolina, on 1 June anchoring off Sullivan's Island (q.v.), near Charleston. The city had been put in a state of defense by Gens. John Armstrong, Charles Lee and Robert Howe (qq.v.) and Fort Moultrie (q.v.) on Sullivan's Island had been strengthened and garrisoned by 435 troops under Col. William Moultrie (q.v.). On 28 June the fleet opened fire and troops were sent to flank the fort but its defenders replied so vigorously that the fleet was compelled to retire and the troops were unable to reach the rear. A few days later the squadron set sail for New York. Consult Gordon, William, 'American Revolution' (Vol. II) i Drayton, W. H., 'Memoirs of the Revolution' (Vol. II) ; Moultrie, William, 'Memoirs of the Revolution> (Vol. I); McCrady, Edward, 'South Carolina in the Revolution' (p. 137 et seq.) ; Ramsay, David, 'History of the Revolution' (Vol. I); Sparks, Jared, 'Cor respondence of the Revolution' (Vol. II, pp. 494-505); Wiley and Rines, 'The United States) (Vol. II, pp. 404-07). In December 1779 Sir Henry Clinton sailed from New York and on 11 Feb. 1780 landed about 30 miles south of Charleston. With reinforcements from New York and Savannah, he had about 13,000 troops, to oppose which Gen. Benjamin
Lincoln (q.v.) had about 2,000 regulars and 1,000 militia, besides residents. On 9 April the fleet passed Fort Moultrie and Clinton es tablished his batteries before the city, dispatch ing small expeditions to cut off communication with the interior. On 21 April Lincoln offered to capitulate, but Clinton rejected his terms, on 7 May captured Fort Moultrie, then threatened to assault the city and finally compelled Lin coln to capitulate, 12 May. More than 5,000 persons were captured besides 400 pieces of artillery, large quantities of stores, a number of small American frigates and two French vessels. This paved the way for Cornwallis' operations against Gates, culminating in the battle of Camden (q.v.). Consult McCrady, 'South Carolina in the Revolution' (p. 427 et seq.) ; Sparks, 'Correspondence of. the Revolution> (Vol. II, p. 401 et seq.) • Ramsay, 'History of the Revolution' (Vol. II); Gor don, 'American Revolution> (Vol. III); Loss ing, 'Field-Book of the Revolution' (Vol. II) ; Tarleton, Banastre, 'History of the Campaigns of 1780-81 in the Southern Provinces of North America' ; Stedman, Charles, 'American War' (Vol. II); Moultrie, 'Memoirs> (Vol. II); Wiley and Rines, 'The United States' (Vol. III, pp. 187-92).