ARTICHOKE. The true Artichoke (Cynara seolymus), an herbaceous annual plant as to its top. with a perennial root. The plant is three to five feet or more high, with large, entire or lobed and spinose (spined) leaves; the thick receptacle, together with the fleshy bases of the scales of the flower head, beino- the parts usually eaten. It is nearly allied to the Cardoon, C. cardunculus. The plant usually cultivated under the name of artichoke is a true sunflower, Heliantlius. The tuberous variety is called Jerusalem Artichoke, a corruption of the Italian name Girasol. There are several wild varieties in the West, found growing generally in rich valleys and river bot toms, the roots or tubers of which are eagerly sought in the autumn and spring by swine. The variety usually cultivated is a native of Brazil, and has many valuable qualities aside from its well known hardiness, standing, as it does, our coldest western winters perfectly. As food for hogs, it should be cultivated extensively, since its tubers are eagerly eaten and are highly con ducive to the health of swine. It has usually been considered a watery, innutritious tuber. It is, however, quite as nutritious as the potato, as the following analysis of the artichoke and potato will show : 1. Proximate analysis of the tubers of the Jerusalem Artichoke, by Braconnot: Uncrystalized sugar 14.80
'maim 3.00 Gum 1.22 Albumen 1.00 Fatty matter 0.09 Citrates of potash and lime 1.15 Phosphates of potash and lime 0.20 Sulphate of potash 0.12 Chl ride of _potassium 0 08 Malates and tartrates of potash and lime 0.05 Woody fibre 1.22 Silica 0.03 Water 77.05 31. Payen found a larger proportion of sugar in this tuber than that stated above, and lie ascer tained that the fatty matter consists of stearine and elaine. Boussingault found: Of dry matter, 20.8; water, 79.2. i.. Proximate analysis of the potato in a fresh state, by Johnston: -Water 75.52 Starch 15 72 Dextrine-. 0 55 Sugar 3 30 Albumen, casein, gluten 1.41 Fat... . .... ..................... 0.24 Fibre 3.26 The c'ultivation of the artichoke is exceedingly simple. Furrow the ground—a well drained soil—four feet apart, and plant the tubers an inch below the surface and about ten inches apart, covering about two inches. Keep free from weeds with the ordinary two-horse corn cul tivator. Dig in the fall, and leave the tubers to be rooted out by the hogs in the autumn, winter and spring. They bear great heat and drouth, and are excellent food for horses, cows and sheep in winter, if used in connection with dry food and salt.