BOTANY. Botany has been defined as being the science which treats of the structure of plants, the functions of their parts, their places of growth, their classification, and the terms which are employed in their description and denomination. Economic botany may be defined as teaching to distinguish between useful and noxious plants, and a correct knowledge of those plants necessmy in daily life. Botany, in a strict sense of the term, is the science which teaches the arrangement of the members of the vegeta ble kingdom in a certain order or systern, by which we are enabled to ascertain the name of any individual plant with facility and precision. Such arrangement is only to be con sidered as useful in proportion as it facilitates the acquirement of a knowledge of their eco nomical and medicinal quali ties, which cannot be perfectly ascertained without an ac quaintance with vegetable physiology, the parts of plants, their functions and uses. Bot any, in its most comprehensive form, teaches us the names, arrangement, parts, functions, qualities and uses of plants. It will not be neces sary here to go into structural botany. It will be interesting, however, to become acquainted with leaf forms. Consequently we give a series of carefully prepared illustrations, showing the various shapes they assume. The cuts, Figs. 1 and 2, show the apex and bases of leaves, with their forms and names. Conning now to the forms of leaves, the accompanying cut, Fig. 3, will show, a, repand leaf of Enchanter's Night shade; b, double serrate leaf of Elm; c, undulate leaf of Shingle Oak (Q. limbricairia); d, crenate leaf, Catmint ; e, dentate leaf of Arrow-wood (Vi burnum dentakom); f, serrate leaf of Chestnut; g, lobed leaf (Chrysanthemum). Leaves, it may be remarked, are described by their forms, pat terns of the borders, or margins. These axe various, and always beautiful to the educated eye. Some are hairy, some are smooth, and others covered with an enamel of silex, present ing a glistening surface. The quince and lily have their margins entire and even. The wil low is notched in the margin like a saw, but the teeth all point one way, like those of a sa.w for ripping boards. Thus they are serrate, or if the notches are very fine, serrated. If the teeth point neither forward or backward, but out ward, they are dentate, or like teeth; and again, if the teeth are quite small they are denticulate.
But the teeth themselves may he again toothed.
Then they are doubly dentate ; or, the serratures of a leaf may be notched. They are then doubly serrate, as in the elm, Fig. 3. So, in the apex of leaves there is something to learn. The apex may be acuminate, ending in a long, tapering point; or cuspidate, suddenly contracted to a sharp slender point; mucronate, tipped with a spiny point ; acute, sinaply ending with an angle; obtuse, blunt. Or the leaf may end without a point, being truncate, as if cut square off ; retuse, with a rounded and slightly depressed end where the point should be; emarginate, having a small notch at the end; obeordate. hav ing a deep indentation at the end. This may seenn to some readers of but lit tle practical value, never theless, it is one of the im portant things upon which the study of botany rests, and valuable to every child who studies botany, even from a purely practical standpoint. Thus we have delineated something of the more simple form of leaves. In the scope of this work, while giving condensed information from. an experience ot over a quarter of a cen tury, of manual labor on the farm, supplemented by constant reading of the best authorities, careful experiment, and the close application of all to the practical working of the farm, we have followed authorities only so far as they do not conflict with the practical application of science. Scientific names are of value to a large class of readers, and for the reason that the Latin has been adopted where civilization with palmate, three-toothed leaflets (Potentilla trid,entata); c, binate leaf (Jeff'ersonia di phylla); d, simple leaf jointed to the petiole, Lemon. Fig. 9, rose leaves (compound leaves); at a, in this cut, shows the stipules adnate (a stipule is an appendage at the base of a leaf somewhat resembling a small leaf in texture and appearance); b, shows a leaf of violet (V. tri color) with gashed stipule. The next cut, Fig. 10, shows Red Clover ; a compound leaf at a; b, simple leaf, Weeping Willow ; c, ensiform (sword shape) leaf of Iris, or Fleur extends, as a language with which scholarly men are acquainted, and hence is a me dium used which all readily understand. Thus, whatever common names may be used for one and the same object, its true name is always expressed scientifically by a name, synonyms scarcely ever being allowed, except inserted in parenthesis. In the above cut, Fig 4, are shown at a, reniform leaf of Wild Ginger; b, reniform leaf of Pennywort ; c, peltate leaf of Penny wort ; d, oblong leaf of Toothed Arabis; e, arrow-shaped leaf of Scratch Knot-grass; f, obovate-spatulate, articulate at base, Fra ser's Magnolia ; g, spatulate leaf of Silene Virginica ; h, three-lobed leaf of Liver wort. In the next cut, Fig. 5, the form shown at a,runcinate leaf of Wild Lettuce; b, pin natifid leaf of Celandrine; c, pinnatisect leaf of Fennel-flower. The next series of leaves, Fig. 6, shows a, ovate leaf of Pear tree ; b, lanceolate leaf of Flowering Al mond; c, narrow lanceolate leaf ; d, del toid leaf of White Birch. The next series, Fig. 7, shows a, obovate leaf of Smoke-tree (Rims cotinus); b, orbicular leaf of Winter green (Pyrola); c, oval leaf of Plum-tree; d, elliptical leaf of Black Haw ; e, oblong leaf of willow. In the next illustration, Fig. 8, are still other forms, as a, leaf with five cut lobes, almost guinate (Potentilla anserina); b, temate, de-lis ; d, acerose shaped) leaf of Scotch Pine. In the next illustration, Fig. 11, still other forms of leaves are given, as a, amplexicaul leaves (Aster kvis); b, foliate leaves of Bellwort (Uvularia perfoliata); c, nate leaves of Honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens). The next cut, Fig. 12, shows at a, an orbicular leaf of leaved Orchis; b, a sagittate leaf of Arrowhead; c, a date leaf of Pond-weed; d, lanceolate leaves stem and flower of Lily of the ley ; and e, linear leaves of Blue-eyed grass chium). The next tion, Fig. 13,will show forms of leaves, including some of the oaks and other curious forms, as a, natifid leaf of Pig-weed (Goose-foot family); b, sinnate-lobed leaf of White Oak; c, undulate Catalpa, or may be clothed with long hairs, called coma. The silk of Silk-grass (Ascle pias) is the coma of the seed, and cotton is the coma of cotton seed. The seed of poplar (cotton-wood) or.wil low is also furnished with coma. The first stage of grovvth is called germination. (See article on Germination.) As to how it grows, the water which the plant imbibes by its roots becomes sap in the stem, and circulates in every part as the blood circulates in the animal frame The leaves, by their broad, thin forms, serve as lungs, to bring all the sap passing, through them into contact lobed leaf of Jack Oak; d, lyrate leaf, Moss-cup Oak ; e, lobed leaf of Blue Milk-weed (11fulgedium). The two figures in the next illustration, Fig. 14, will close the forms of leaves exhibited. They are, a, tri-pinnate leaf of Honey Locust; b, tri pinnate leaf of Poison Hemlock. The very com plete glossary of botanical terms appended to this article, will explain not only the meaning of the terms used, but also, others in general use among botanists. They are given, as are the forms of leaves, not as constituting a text work to the student in botany, but as helps to those who wish to acquire practical knowledge in the science, as brought into the every day life of the worker of the soil, and especially as a means of initiating the young into a love of this important and interesting study. That every farmer should know something of the history and characteristics of plants is certainly neces sary. Indeed, there is no farm laborer, however ignorant, but what acquires a very considerable knowledge in this direction, simply by observa tion. To assist all who have not pursued botany as a study, this article and its object-lessons will be of value. The history of the development of the seed, and the essentials in the biography of the plants is contained as follows: The shell of a seed may be of any color, as white, black, yel low, red, etc. • may be polished and shining, or (lull and rough; may be of any shape, as round, or oval, or egg-shaped; mav be winged, as in with the air and light. By this means the sap is changed into a nourishing food, fitted to sustain the growth of the plant in every part. Thus the leaves are design ed, not only as an ornamental robe, but as organs of breathing and di gestion. In the second stage of
growth, when the plant depends no longer upon the seed for nour ishment, it goes on increasing in open each a flower instead of a leafy branch. A flower is therefore leafy branch transformed having its axis undeveloped, its leaves in crowded circles, moulded into more delicate forms and tinged with brighter colors, not only pleasing to the ey.e, but also as a means of attracting insects . to assist fertilization to prepare the way for fruit. (See illustration ) The fourth stage of plant-life is t„he period of its fruit-bearing. The flowers have gradually faded and disappeared, but the pistil, -having received the quickening pollen, remains in its place, holds fast all the nourishing • matter which continues to flow into it through the flower-stem, grows, and finally ripens into , the perfected fruit and seed. The fifth and last staFe in the biography of the pant is its hibernation, the winter; cessation of growth, or death. If the event of ing and fruit-hearing occur within the first or second year of the life of the plant, it is generally followed by its speedy death. In all other cases it is followed hy a state of needful repose, wherein it is commonly stripped of its leaves, and gives few, if any, tions of life, until awaked, with renewed vigor, in the stature and multiplying its leaves and bmnches. It now consists of three parts, viz: root, st,em and leaves. These are called the organs of vege tation. The third stage of plant-life is the period of flowering. Before this period all its activity was devoted to its own nourishment and growth. Now it begins to live and act for the continu ance of its own kind after it upon the earth, according to the Divine decree in Genesis, 1.11. Some of its buds un dergo a striking change, and following spring. According to their different terms of life, we distinguish plants as annuals, biennials, and perennials. An annual herb com pletes its whole history in one year. In the spring it germinates; in summer it grows, blooms, bears fruit; and in autumn its work and life are ended. The mustard, maize and morning-glory are such. A biennial herb lives two years. Dur mg the first it germinates, grows, and bears leaves only; and in its second year it blossoms, bears fruit and dies. Such is the beet and radish. A perennial plant survives several or many years. There are herbaceous perennials and woody per ennials. The herbaceous perennials, or peren nial herbs, are such as survive the winter only by their roots or their parts which grow under ground. These in spring send up leaves, flowers, and often stems, all of which per ish in autumn, leaving only the parts under the ground alive as before. Such are the hop, asters, violets. Woody perennials sur vive the winter by their stems as well as roots, and usually grow for several years be fore flowering, and then flower annually during their existence. According to their size, such plants are trees, shrubs, under shrubs. A tree is the largest among plants, having a permanent, woody stem, usually unbranched below, and dividing into branches above. The oaks, elms and pines are familiar examples. A shrub is smaller than a tree, usually growing in clusters from one under ground mass of roots. 'The lilacs, roses, alders, are shrubs. Small shrubs, about of our own stature, as the currants, brambles, we call bushes. Very low shrubs, as the blueberries, box, etc., are undershrubs. Plants are divided into phEenogamous or flowering plants, or cryp togamous or flowerless plants ; the first comprise the more noble ; the second having spores instead of flowers. To these belong the Scouring Rush, Ferns, Club-moss, Mushrooms, etc. Flower ing plants are vegetables bearing proper flowers, ^ having stamens and pis tils, and producing seeds which contain an em bryo. They are dicoty ledonous or exogenous, and monocotyledonous or endogenous plants. Di cotyledonous or exogen ous plants have the stems formed of bark, wood and pith ; the wood forming a layer between. the other two, increas ing, when the stem con tinues from year to year, by the annual addition of a new layer to the out side, next the bark. Leaves netted-veined; embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons, or rarely several in a whorl; flowers having their parts usually in fives or fours. Monocotyledonous, or endogenous plants, have stems with no manifest distinction into bark, wood and pith ; hut the woody fibre and vessels collected into bundles or threads, which are irregularly imbedded in the cellular tissue; perennial trunks destitute of annual layers; Leaves mostly parallel-veined (nerved) and sheath ing at the base, seldom separating by an articula tion, almost always alternate, or scattered and not toothed. Parts of the flower commonly in threes. Embryo with a single cotyledon (and the leaves of the plumule alternate). Indian corn, the other grasses, etc. are examples of the latter; the oak, elm, appleAree and many others, are of the former. Species of plants are comprised of all individuals of the same kind, and are descended from a common stock. A genus is an assemblage of species which are much alike, especially in their flowers and fruit. Thus. flax is a genus made of similar species. Clover is a genus composed of 150 species. Pine is a genus, embracing as species White Pine, Yellow Pine, Pitch Pine, Long-leaved Pine, and many others. Individuals of the same species may differ some what among themselves, and these differences coustitute varieties. Thus apple trees differ in their fruit, and there are hundreds of varieties although only one species. Roses differ in their form, color, and fragrance of their flowers, forming many varieties under each species. Nat ural orders are made up of genera. Just as simi lar species form a genus, so similar genera form natural orders. Thus individuals, form species, species form genera, and genera form orders. These, as previously stated, are again divided into the two sub-kingdoms—flowering plants and flowerless plants. The first called Phcenogamia and the latter Cryptogamia. Exogens have the wood in concentric rings or layers, formed year by year, the outer the newest. By counting these, one may form a definite idea of the age of the tree. The leaves of this class are net-veined, the flowers seldom or never completely three parted, and the seed two-lobed. The endogens have their wood, if any, confused, the inner portion being the newest. Their leaves are par allel-veined, flowers three-parted, and seeds one lobed. Exogens are of two forms, vessel seeded, called angiosperins, and naked seeded called gym nosperms. Exogens generally have pistils to the flowers, with young seeds inclosed in their ovaries. The pines, yews, etc., have no pistils, or at least no stigmas to their inflorescence, and produce naked seeds, and hence are called gym nosperm, from the compound Greek word sigui fying naked-seeded. The grasses, endogens, have their flowers enveloped in green alternate scales, glumes, instead of the circle of pistils common to other flowers. Thus the division is made into glume plants and glumeless plants, called glumiferce and petaliferrn. Thus, all flower ing plants are divided into four classes, as fol lows: Angiosperms; exogens bearing stigmas and seed-vessels. Gymnosperms; exogens with no stigmas, and with naked seeds, as the pines, firs, larches, cedars, cypresses, yews, ete. Peta liferce; endogens with no glumes and ordinary flowers. Glumiferce; endogens with glumes instead of petals, as the Grasses, Sedges, Grains. Angiosperms may be readily distinguished .from gymnosperms, from the fact that nearly all the latter are cone-bearing, as the Pine, Cedar, Larch, etc. Below we give a tabular view of the natural system of classification of plants: The very complete glossary, compiled by the late and lamented Dr. Darlington, will be found important and very interesting in eonnec tion with botany in its relation to ture. The reader will bear in mind, that where compowad descriptive terms are employed the last member of the compound word is in tended to give the predominant character, and that the word or syllable prefixed merely indi cates a modification of that character; as for example Ovate-lanceolate signifies lanceolate, but inclining somewhat to ovate; while lance ovate means ovate with something of the lance olate form, etc. So of colors: yellowish-green, bluish-green, signify that green is the prevail ing hue, but that it is tinged with a shade of yellow, blue, etc. Terms indicative of the size of any organ, or portion of plant as large, small, or middle-sized, are of course, relative, and have reference to the usual or average size of such parts, or organs, in other species of the same genus, or family.