VETERINARY SCIENCE. The care of sick animals on the farm requires more than ordinary prudence in its management. The dumb animal can not tell of its aches and pains, can not des cribe peculiar symptoms, except by brute signs, quite unintelligible to those who have not given particular study and attention to the phenomena presented in various cases. Pain in many instances is plainly enough intimated as to its near locality, by the animal turning its head to the part, or by striking at it with its feet. Yet the operator in veterinary art, must have studied much to be able always to tell the cause of that pain. Happily the days of bleeding and strong physic, the universal rule among a class of horse doctors, is now well past, and the modern vet erinary surgeon depends more upon good care and nursing, with such remedies as may he needed to meet particular symptoms as they occur. Under their appropriate names, in the body of this work, are given such remedies and specifics as are proper for the diseases treated of, (those most usually appearing in farm animals) and in all difficult and critical cases the reader is advised to appeal to a veterinary surgeon if such can be had, and if not, then apply to the family physician, for no humane countiy physician will now-a-days refuse to minister to a dumb brute, for fear of being called a horse doctor. That day is happily passed except among a class who might almost be called unworthy the name of M. D. It really requires more science sometimes to understand the symptoms of a dumb brute than a human subject, and hence the physician who prescribes really shows hirn self not only humane, but of broad culture as well. As showing how the practice of the heal ing art on the human subject has been assisted by comparative investigations on the bodies of animals, and also as showing something of the benefits accruing from the study of comparative anatomy and physiology, we rnay quote from as old and well known an authority as Galen, who said: If medical men have been guilty of gross errors, it is because they have neglected to dissect brutes. Says Mr. Vines, speaking of some vvho have distinguished themselves as sur geons: They have transplanted to the medical profession the honor of discoveries that were made by trenching on the territory of the veteri nary science. In experiments in transfusing the blood of one animal into that of another it was discovered that what were termed the globules of the blood were uniform in all animals of the same species, and yet presented different forms in, animals of different tribes. In man, the par ticles of blood presented flat disks, resembling pieces of money, having a slight depression. In birds, reptiles and fishes the disks were oval, in stead of being round, and instead of being de pressed in the center, they were elevated on each side. From this experiment it was argued that the fitness of the blood of one animal to the uses of another of a different species depended on the formation of its globules. Experiments have frequently been made to test the truth of this theory, and it has been found to be correct. An eminent physiologist has remarked that, in order to arrive at an explanation of what is ob scure in man, we must look to the lowest and simplest forms of creation. For though in man is combined, in a wonderful and unequaled manner, all the functions which separately ex hibit themselves in various other animals, he is not the most favorable subject for observing their action; hence we are obliged to refer to a num ber of other tribes for the assistance we gain in the study of their comparative structures. There is not a single species of animal that does not present us with a set of facts which we should never learn btit by observing them in such species, and many of the facts ascertained by the observation of the simplest and most common animals. Speaking of veterinary art, its general history, and the science as it existed twenty years ago, the late Dr. Dadd wrote: The veteri nary science, like that practiced on man, was first called into existence by necessity; the many diseases to which domestic animals were subject, and to which they, too frequently, fell victims for want of proper professional knowledge, and the great loss which agriculturists experienced in consequence, led them to seek for a remedy. In the year 1761, the first veterinary school was established at Lyons, under the patronage of government, whose fostering care the infant school for a time received. At the commence ment of this embryotic enterprise, the populace looked on with indifference ; but many of the liberal and scientific men of that day saw in the enterprise a boundless field for research, a broad road to usefulness and distinction, and many eagerly embarked in it with unflinching per severance, overcoming every obstacle, with a view of making known those laws regulating the vital forces of domestic animals. The fruits of their labors are bequeathed as a legacy to the profession, and the names of the first cultivators of veterinary science are inscribed on the tablets of their country's history as public benefactors. Four years after the endowment of this, the first school in France, a similar one was established at Alfort. A regular system of veterinary medi cine was there taught, under which students acquired an acquaintance with the various forms of disease, and the modusoperandi of therapeutic agents on domestic animals. The novel enter prise was regarded by other nations of Europe with a vvatchful eye, and they were not slow in coming to the rescue; schools rapidly sprang up in Holland, Berlin, Copenhagen, Stutgard, and in vaidous other places, which proved equally successful and beneficial as the French schools. We now pass over a period of twenty-seven years, during which time the science had gradu ally enlisted in its ranks men of influence, tal ents, and research. And now an individual of French descent, named St. Bel, lands on the shores of England, having letters of introduction from the first men in France to Sir Joseph Banks and other influential individuals, to whom he made known his mission ; which was, that of establishing the veterinary science, then un known, and of course unappreciated, in the Brit ish dominions. He was encouraged, with very flatteiing assurances of success, to commence operations, aud shortly after his arrival in Lon don he published proposals for establishing a veterinary school; there seemed, howeFer, to be a sort of indifference manifested among the masses, and consequently very little, beyond making known his objeet, was effected during the first year. In the following, he published proposals to read lectures on the science, and thiis give the English nation an opportunity to judge of the value of the new project; but, alas! he was doomed to disappointment; his second proposal met with no better success than at first. The apparent failure of his primary labors has been attributed, by an eminent writer, to various causes, and it may be well for us to notice them, for the very same causes have been in active operation, diverting American skill and intelli gence from embarking in a cause so worthy the attention and support of a free and enlightened nation. It was in consequence of the character of those who presumed, without the necessary qualifications, to practice the art, that the Eng lish husbandmen refused to put their shoulders to the wheel, and receive the offered boon. That country had been visited by diseases of a pesti lential type, which had made sad havoc among the stock, and had swept them from the green hills and verdant valleys, as by the blast of a tor nado. Their horses, too, did not escape the arm of the destroyer; they were constantly suffering and dying from insidious forms of disease, the history and characters of which were almost unknown. This state of things, together with the unfortunate occurrence that there were no legitimate practitioners, had opened a wide field for adventurers and quacks, whose barbarous systems, of medication, probably, was the cause of many deaths. These practitioners, in lieu of better, were taken as standards, and the people had, to a great extent, formed an estimate of the value of this art in exact ratio to the talents of the village farrier, and in proportion to the suc cess that attended his labors. This is precisely the state of affairs in America. St. Bel gives ns another reason for his failure, but it amounts to nearly the same thing. He says: The opulence of England offered a wide field for imposters of foreign origin, by whom the nation was daily imposed on, and repeated experience of such impositions naturally excited distrust towards foreigners in general; and because honesty of views was not written on his face, patience and perseverance became his only resources. At
this stage of affairs St. Bel was fortunate enough to make the acquaintance of a gentleman who had a decided taste for the art, and who eagerly responded to the views of the professor, and bade him not despair of ultimate success; assur ing him that by setting the matter in its right light before the people he would soon obtain all he desired. This assurance inspired St. Bel with new hopes, and he immediately issued a pam phlet of some twenty-eight pages, entitled, Plan for Establishing an Institution to Cultivate and Teach the Veterinary Art. This pamphlet was well received, and several agricultural societies paid the writer handsome compliments, and con ferred on him honorary distinction. During the year 1790, several meetings took place between the members of agricultural societies and others favorable to the cause; at length measures were adopted for promoting the object. A resolution to this purport was now passed, which read as fol lows: That the parties had observed the good effects produced on the public mind by the exer tions of the friends to the art, for its improve ment, and approved of St. Bel's plan for estab lishing a public institution for that purpose. The result was, that an institution was soon endowed, which was named The Veterinary Col lege of London, to which St. Bel was appointed professor. But, unfortunately, that distinguished individual had scarcely occupied the chair one year, when a sudden and brief illness terminated his mortal career, and he was consigned_to the tomb ere the laurels had scarcely encircled his brow. Being thus cut off at such an early period, yet in thc midst of his usefulness, the prospects of the infant institution became greatly affected—only for a short season, however. The college was considered to be in a flourishing condition; the Duke of Northumberland had already contributed a sum equal in our money to twenty-five hundred dollars, and the enterprise numbered among its staunch supporters such men as the Earl of Grosvenor, Mr. Penn, Earl Morton, Drs. John Hunter and Crawford, and subsequently that great surgeon and medical hero, Sir Astley Cooper. Medical men hailed the new enterprise as one not only calculated to ameliorate the condition of suffering domestic animals, but, what was of still greater impor tance to them and mankind, they perceived in it a fruitful field for the cultivation of comparative anatomy and physiology. With this object in view, Dr. J. Hunter assisted the friends of the new school both by his professional influence and from his private purse. Although the col lege had been in existence but a brief period, its pupils had gained sufficient knowledge of theory and practice to distinguish themselves; thus fully realizing the anticipations of its foun ders. Among the first students who sought to qualify themselves as efficient veterinary prac titioners, we find recorded the names of Lau rence, Blain and Clark. Each of these philan thropists has since left to the world a record of their labors, which, even in this enlightened age, serve as useful guides to the young aspirant for veterinary fame. The professorship made vacant by the death of the father of this science, St. Bel, was conferred on Mr. Coleman, who had previously devoted himself to physiological research; he, too, soon distinguished himself, and the college again assumed its former flour ishing condition. A medical committee was now appointed, consisting of some of the most emi nent practioners that the country could boast of, by whom the pupils were examined, and when, found to have acquired sufficient knowledge of the art, certificates were granted accordingly. We are informed that this medical examining committee were lecturers of human medicine, aria with a liberality that reflected great credit on. them, permitted the veterinary pupils to attend their lectures on human anatomy free of charge. Thus did a band of really great and good men unite their efforts and interests, for the study of the science of life in all its diversities and forms. By this wise association of the sister sciences, its. advocates aimed a death blow at ignorance, quackery, and superstition of the times, and they were successful to some extent; for a new order of practitioners took the field; they soon. demolished the old landmarks set up by the ignorant farriers, and created in their stead beacons of light; thus spreading the illuminating rays of science broadcast, and the public, as well as domestic animals, were benefited thereby. The advantages under which the veterinary art can now be studied in England, France, and_ Germany are not inferior to those of the most favored university; and such astonishing discov eries, through the aid of chemistry and the. microscope, are in such rapid succession surpris ing the medical world, and so splendid are the. achievements in the departments of veterinary surgery, that the noble sons of 2Esculapius (our brethren of the human school) are watching the labors of their kindred spirits with no ordinary interest. In the United States comparatively few graduates have entered the sphere of vet erinary science. Some of our agricultural col leges have chairs of veterinary science, and yet to the American mind seeking an honorable pro fession the duties pertaining to veterinary prac tice do not seem to take kindly to it. Hence it is left principally to the graduates of European schools, who have emigrated hither. In our great cities every large stable has its paid veteri narian. In the country, especially in the more sparsely- settled districts, it would be impossible for a veterinary surgeon to gain a living. Hence the greater need that every owner of animals -4hould know something of the treatment of them, and hence again the reason why in this work we consider it important to give plain, sim ple, concise rules for the treatment of such dis eases as generally come under the eye of the agriculturist, and which will be found treated of under their appropriate titles. Some of the fam ily scales made at the present day are so nicely adjusted that they will answer for weighing drugs where the nicest accuracy is not needed. For this reason we give a table of apothecaries -weights of quantities by untensils. Apothecaries weight is as follows: Sixty- grains make one drachm; eight drachm one ounce, and sixteen ounces one pound. Where strict accuracy is uot essential: sixty drops is equal to a teaspoon full. and a teaspoonfull is a drachm; four tett spoonfulls make a tablespoonful] or half an ounce; two tablespoonfulls make an ounce; one wineglassfull, two ounces; oue teacupfull four ounces; one tumblerfull, one half-pint, and two make a pint. So also the half pint and pint tin cup may be used as measures. Never theless, where much stock is kept it is better that the farmer provide himself not only- with the proper scales, but also with a graduated fluid measure. So also it would be better that a few instruments should be kept, as for instance, a blunt pointed bistoury for operating under the skin or in cavities. A. thumb lancet, as being better than the old fashioned fleam. and safer than the spring lancet, gauging the depth with the thumb. A. pair of forceps, for dressing wounds, catching and holding arteries for tying, etc. An aneurismal needle, blunt pointed for introducing small seton tapes, and if necessary' for exploring wounds; a silver probe, however, blunt at one end and sharp at the other is better. A frog knife, such as is used by horse shoers, for clean ing and paring the hoofs, etc. A pair of curved scissors for trimming the edges of wounds, and cutting away hair close to the skin. A straight broad scalpel, which is useful in opening ab sce,sses, as well as for castrating anitnals. These with a seton needle, a few surgical needles, and ,onte white silk, linen thread, or fine catg-ut for tying wounds will provide amply- for any case as ordinarily' coming up on the farm, or when it may not be imperatively necessary to call a vet erinaty surgeon. A small collection of medi cines to be kept will be found useful. White or opaque bottles should be used, since the action of light changes some substances. Keep every thing well corked, and all corrosive substances in strong glass bottles with ground glass stoppers. So instruct the druggist of whomyou buy. Front live to ten doses of each will be sufficient. The annexed list of medicines as given by Dr. Law in his Veterinary Adviser will be found val uable for reference being arranged for all farm animals. Those rnarked by. a star (*) will be found useful to have always at hand. The list is as follows: A.cetic Acid, antidote to alkaliee, cooling aetringent: llorse 1 drachm; ox 2 drachms: ass 1 drachm; eheep 1 scruple; dog 2 to 3 drops.