YELLOW-CAP BUDDHISTS. When in course of time the Buddhists in Tibet split up into two chief bodies or parties, a strict party and a lax or less strict party, they came to be distinguished by the colour of their clothing, the strict party wearing yellow, the lax party red. The Yellow-cap Buddhists were founded in the fifteenth century by Tsong Khapa (b. 1355 or 1357), whose followers were also known as the Gelugpa Sect (q.v.). His idea was to institute a religious reform, and he has been compared with Martin Luther (1433-154(1). He felt that the discipline of Buddhism had been corrupted by the laxity of the Red-cap school, especially by the mar riage of monks. The monastery called Galdan, which he built not far from Lhrtssa, became the first centre of his teaching and influence, hut his movement spread rapidly. " Undeniably, Tsong Kliapa's chief merit was that he caused his followers to revert to the purer monastic discipline, especially to the rule of celibacy. He
also purified the forms of worship, and greatly restricted without altogether prohibiting the use of magical rites. Tsong Khapa, too, is said to have re-established the original practice of retirement for religious meditation at certain seasons, although as there was no rainy season in Tibet, another period had to be chosen " (Monier Williams). When Tsong Khapa died in 1419 A.D., he is supposed to have ascended to heaven. His ascension is celebrated in a Festival of Lamps (see LAMPS). It should be added that Tsong Khapa's reformation had a precursor in the eleventh century. At that time Brom Ton, a disciple of Atisha, founded a sect called Kadampa. He insisted on great strictness in the monastic life. See Monier-Williams; H. Hackman.