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Aniline

paper, animals, ground, solution and faint

ANILINE process based on the oxidation of aniline by chromic acid, and used for copying tracings, maps, etc., invented by Willis. Paper is sensitized with a solution consisting of potassium dichromate t part, phosphoric acid (sp. gr. z.124) 8 to io parts, and water o to 1 2 parts. This solution is brushed over best Saxe paper with a stiff brush, about one inch wide, and the paper hung up to dry. This operation must be performed in the dark-room, as the paper is extremely sensitive. The prepared paper is then exposed under a tracing to direct sun light. The correctness of the exposure is an important matter, therefore an actinometer should he used. If the paper is correctly prepared, it should be of a yellow color, and after exposure a faint yellow picture will appear on a greenish ground. The picture is removed from the frame in the dark-room, and developed by pinning to the lid of a fuming-box, provided with a sheet of glass, upon which is placed some pieces of blotting paper, saturated with a solution of aniline oil I part, and benzine io parts. There it must remain for about half an hour, and if properly de veloped, the result will be dark brown lines on a grayish ground. If it be too faint, however, the development must be continued for several hours, until completed ; it is then washed for some time in several changes of water, and dried. It gives a positive impression from a positive.

ANIMAL photograph animals successfully great patience is required. Mr. Charles Reid, who has made quite a study of this branch of the art, says :* " No hard and fast rules can be laid down for taking animals to advantage, but it may safely be affirmed that without a lively sympathy with the lower creation no one need approach its members with a camera unless he deliberately chooses to be bored. On the part of such as

would derive the pleasure from this pursuit that it is capable of affording, there must be a readiness to adapt oneself to varying circumstances combined with a knowledge of animals and their ways. Their habits and temperaments will be found to differ widely, and then they have to be dealt with under varying conditions of light—sometimes in most unfavorable localities—and in all sorts of weather. In order to tackle them successively one must be in no uncertain mood. Whatever is decided on must be accomplished by some means or other. Those of a timid disposition must be gently dealt with, the unruly have to be cowed, the slovenly must be roused, shy subjects have to be allowed sufficient time—perhaps necessitating repeated visits for them to get familiar with the camera, and so on, according to the results desired." Some knowledge of the haunts and habits of animals is essential in order to make successful pictures. Take, for instance, the study of Ottomar Anschtitz (Fig. 33). Although the photo graph was made in a cage, the artist has supplied a back ground which gives us in a most realistic manner a pic ture of the lion taken appa rently in the open plains of Africa. Another illustration is given to show what can be done in this class of portraiture.