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picture, slits, fig, box, shown and arranged

CARICATURE PHOTOORAPt1.—A photograph in From TImandler's Handbook.

which the natural characteristics of a person or object are FIG. 96.—CARICATURE PORTRAIT. exaggerated or distorted.

There are quite a number of different methods of making caricature portraits. A simple one is to make two photographs of an individual. One of the head alone and another of the entire body on a much smaller scale. From these two negatives prints are made, the larger head is cut out and pasted on to the shoulders of the full length figure. Any signs of the cutting out are removed by the use of a brush and a little coloring matter. From this combined print another negative is made so that any number of these caricature prints can be made without extra trouble. The effect is shown in Fig. 96.

Foregrounds for making caricature portraits are sold in this country. The method of using them is shown in Fig. 98. The card containing the grotesque drawing is held by the sitter on his knees and arranged by the photographer in such a way that his head rests just above the above the neat of the painted body. A white background is arranged behind and when the negative is made all traces of the edges of the foreground are removed by careful retouching.

Another method of obtaining grotesque caricature portraits has been devised by M. Ducos du Hauron. His apparatus, which he calls " La Photographie Transformiste," is thus described by Schnauss in his " Photo graphic Pastimes." A (Fig. 99) is the front of the box which is furnished with an exposed shutter formed of a simple sliding piece fitting into the grooves R R, R R. B B" are two screens pierced with slits a a, c c. C is the rear end of the box where the dark slide is placed. D is the lid of the box, which is lifted either for placing the slotted screens or for putting in the sensitive plate. When not working direct from nature, the transparency is placed in the grooves at R R, R R, at A.

According to the arrangement of the slit, the caricatures obtained will be different. If, for instance, the first slit be a vertical one, and the other, 1. e., the one nearest the picture, a horizontal one, the picture, in comparison with the original, will be distorted lengthwise. If, however, one of the slits forms no straight line, but a curved one, the transformed picture will show either lengthwise or sideways curved lines, according to the slit being a vertical or a horizontal one. The form of the resulting picture will also be different according to which one of the slotted plates is inserted more or less obtusely in the box.

The slits must be made very exactly ; above all, their edges must be absolutely sharp, every incorrectness being transferred to the picture. They may be made about one-third of a milimetre wide ; if they are too narrow the picture will not turn out sharp. In making the slits it is a good plan to cut them in thin black paper, and to mount the latter on glass plates.

In a later description of the apparatus we learn that the discs containing the slits are now made circular in shape, and are so arranged that they can be revolved, as shown in Fig. 102. This, of course, allows of a still greater variety of positions of the two apertures in relation to each other and an increasing number of grotesque effects. Reproduc tions of some of the pictures obtained are given.

CARRIER.—An arrangement for holding film or paper sensitive surfaces, when exposed in the camera in the same manner as the dry-plate.

A wooden framework so con structed as to allow the photog rapher to insert in the holder a smaller size of plate than that for which the camera is intended.