PANORAMIC CAMERA. — A camera specially constructed as to enable photographs embodying a very large angle of view to be taken, usually upon a curved surface. The first camera of this kind was constructed by Mr. Martens, of Paris, in the year 1847, for cylindrical Daguerreotype plates. Then followed the camera of Sutton.t A cylindrical glass was employed, and the negative paper bent so as to press against it. Cylindrical collodion plates were also used, but this, of course, necessitated the use of curved printing frames. These plates were, of course, curved in the form corresponding to the rotation of the camera around the axis situated exactly below the center of the lens. If flat plates had been used it will be obvious that the upper horizontal lines of the image would be curved in an upward direction, and the lower ones in a downward. After Sutton's patent came the improvement of Dr. Liesegang, by which it was transformed into a simple rotating camera. A stout tripod carries a large polished table, fitted to which is a pivot or axis, upon which the camera turns. The pivot is so adjusted as to fall into the same plane as the optical center of the lens. These cameras are made in two sizes for plates 19 by 9 and 23 by II inches. In front of the plate inside the camera a flexible band is fitted
which has a narrow vertical slit through which only the middle rays of light pass. This slit is about a quarter of an inch wide, but widened out a little where the near foreground falls in order to secure a longer exposure for that portion of the picture, and thus im part greater uniformity to the tone of the negative. The two motions of the instrument, viz , that of the camera on its axis and the motion of the dark slide, supported on wheels, from right to left, are performed by an ingenious arrangement of hori zontal cords and pulleys. After focusing, the operator has only to turn a handle to take in the wide scope of the horizon or a group ar ranged in a semicircle around the instrument. Any lens may be used provided its focus is in a range with the length of the camera.
The latest form of panoramic camera is that shown in Fig. 327. Films are used, and these are placed in the curved holder. The light from the lens passes through a small slit, which runs along the sensitive film as the lens rotates. See also Panoramic Photography, Cylindrograph.