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paper, solution, coated, oil, support and translucent

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TRANSFERROTYPE, TONING.—Warm tones, ranging from a rich brown to a brilliant red, may be obtained with transferrotype paper, after fixing and transferring (the image will not transfer after toning) by the following method : Two solutions are prepared.

TRANSFERS.—There are several photographic processes by means of which images can be transferred to almost any support, as wood, glass, china, etc. The one most generally adopted is no doubt the single or double transfer carbon process. Liesegang introduced a very simple method of transferring prints. He coated thickly-gummed paper with a collodion printing-out emulsion. After printing upon this paper it was laid upon the final support, previously coated with a gelatine solution, and then melted. The gum substratum dissolved and the paper came away, leaving the image upon the support, which was then toned and fixed.

Another method is as follows: A sheet of paper is first coated with a gelatine solution, and this is damped and laid on to a sheet of glass. Little larger strips of paper are then pasted all round, half on the paper and half on the glass. When dry the expansion of the paper stretches it quite firm and flat. It is then coated with a solution of collodion containing about 2 per cent. of pyroxyline and 2 per cent. of castor oil. The paper can now be leveled and coated with a collo dio-chloride or a gelatino-chloride printing-out emulsion, or an ordinary bromide or chloride emulsidn as used for plates, and the image printed by contact and development. If a gelatine emulsion be used it must be made to contain as much alum as permissible to render the film in soluble. To transfer it is only necessary to coat the support with a z 0 per cent. solution of gela tine, and after toning and fixing the print to squeegee it on to it. By the application of a little warm water the paper support, with the underlying film of gelatine, can be washed away. (See also Transferrotype.

are said to be translucent when they allow rays of light to pass through, but so nearly opaque that objects are scarcely, if at all, visible through them.

Paper can be made translucent by several different methods. In working with paper negatives it is almost a necessity to have the paper as translucent as possible to lessen the time required in making positives, and also for the purpose of removing as far as possible the grain or texture of the paper. Of the best known methods may be mentioned the following: Prepare— Castor oil 5 parts Ether t part Place the paper negative face downwards upon a piece of glass and spread this solution thickly over it, then well warm it till the oil has thoroughly soaked through the paper, and when cool remove the superfluous oil and again warm. Should any of the oil get on to the surface it can be readily removed with a little ether.

Another method is by means of an indiarubber solution composed of In di arubber solution 2 parts Canada balsam 2 parts Benzole 3 parts This is rubbed well into the back of the negative with a piece of cotton wool till thoroughly soaked. It is then dried.

Passing through melted paraffine wax is also recommended for making paper translucent. This must be effected at a temperature so low as to enable it to thoroughly penetrate the paper. It is better not to iron the negative, but to simply warm it, and with a piece of soft cloth to re move all the superfluous wax. Paraffine cools instantaneously, and does not soil the albumenized paper. It renders the paper perfectly free from granularity and prints out rapidly.

A process by no means easy, but which may be made successful, is the following: Make a mixture of Gum dammar 20 parts Gum elemi 5 parts • Benzole too parts Pour this into a flat dish and place the negatives in one after another, and allow them to remain in it for about five minutes, and hang up to dry. Benzole must be occasionally added to the solu tion in consequence of its speedy evaporation. The negatives treated with this will be found very transparent and require no varnishing.

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