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Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopedia

A Vacuous Space In
A Vacuous Space In A Hot Cylinder. Still The Important Difficulty Before Alluded To Remained To Be Surmounted. The Vessel In Which The Condensation Was Effected — The Condenser — Would Speedily Become Surcharged With The Injection Water, The.condensed Steam, And The Incondensible Steam That Must Accumulate Therein; How Were ...

Absorbing And Productive Cascade
Absorbing And Productive Cascade. An Apparatus Of Great Utility And Elegance, Invented By M. Clement. It Is Known That The Absorption Or Solution Of The Gases Takes Place In Proportion To The Pressure On The Absorbing Liquid, The Extent Of Surface Exposed To The Absorbing Action, And To The Length ...

Acceleration
Acceleration Is The Increase Of Velocity In A Moving Body, Caused By The Continued Action Of The Motive Force. When Bodies In Motion Pass Through Equal Spaces In Equal Times, Or, In Other Words, When The Velocity Of The Body Is The Same During The Period That The Body Is ...

Acetic Acid
Acid, Acetic, Is The Acid Contained In Common Vinegar, But In A Very Dilute State, And In Combination With Other Vegetable Principles. It Is Found United With Potash In A Great Variety Of Plants, Also In Several Animal Secretions. It Is Likewise The Result Of A Spontaneous Fermentation, To Which ...

Adhesion
Adhesion Denotes An Union, To A Certain Degree, Between Two Distinct Substances, And Differs From Cohesion, (with Which The Former Word Is Often Con Founded,) Inasmuch, As The Latter Term Is Alone Properly Applicable To The Retaining Together Of The Component Particles Of The Same Mass. Adhesion Is, However, Of ...

Adhesion Op Glue
Adhesion Op Glue. Mr. Bevan Glued Together By The Ends, Two Cylinders .of Dry Ash Wood, One-fifth Of An Inch In Diameter, And About 8 Inches Lost'. After They Had Been Glued Together Twenty-four Hours, They Required A Force Of 1260 Lbs. To Separate Them; And As The Area Of ...

Aerated Waters
Aerated Waters. This Term Being Popularly Applied To A Variety Of Acidulous And Alkaline Beverages More Or Less Impregnated With Fixed Air, Or Carbonic Acid Gas, We Introduce Our Article On The Subject In This Place ; And As The Manufacture Of These Liquids Has Of Late Years Become Of ...

Agate
Agate. A Mineral Whose Basis Is Calcedony, Blended With Variable Pro Portions Of Jasper, Amethyst, Quartz, Opal, Heliotrope, And Carnelian. Ribbon Agate Consists Of Alternate And Parallel Layers Of Calcedony With Jasper, Or Quartz, Or Amethyst The Most Beautiful Comes From Liberia And Saxony ; It Occurs In Porphyry And ...

Agriculture
Agriculture Is The Art Of Cultivating The Earth, So As To Preserve Or Increase The Natural Fertility Of The Soil, As Well As To Render Sterile Tracts Pro Ductive Of Vegetation Useful To Man; And The Perfection Of This Art May Be Said To Consist In Obtaining The Greatest Quantity ...

Air Balloon
Balloon, Air. A Bag Made Of Silk, Paper, Or Other Light Material, For Containing Heated Air, Or Gas, Of Less Specific Gravity Than The Atmosphere. If The Weight Of The Balloon, And Of The Heated Air Or Gas Which It Contains, Be Less Than That Of An Equal Bulk Of ...

Air Gun
Air-gun. A Machine In Which Highly-compressed Air Is Substituted For Gunpowder To Expel The Ball, Which Will Be Projected Forward With Greater Or Less Velocity, According To The State Of Condensation, And The Weight Of The Body Projected. The Effect Will, Therefore, Be Similar To That Of A Gun Charged ...

Air Motive Engines
Air Motive-engines. It Has Been Already Explained That Air Expands, Or Has Its Elastic Pressure Increased By The Application Of Heat, And That Its Volume Contracts, And Its Pressure Becomes Less, By A Decrease Of Temperature; And Several Attempts Have Been Made By Taking Advantage Of This Property Of Air, ...

Air Pressure Engines
Air-pressure Engines. Engines In Which The Difference Of Pres Sure Of Air Of Different Densities Is Employed As A Motive Force. From The Extreme Lightness And Mobility Of Air, It Has Been Frequently Proposed To Employ It As A Medium For Transmitting Motion To Machinery At A Considerable Distance From ...

Air Pump
Air-pump. An Instrument Or Machine For Exhausting Or Rarefying The Air In Closed Vessels, And Very Generally Employed To Illustrate The Properties Of Air, And To The Various Phenomena Connected With The Science Of Pneumatics. The Inventor Of The Air-pump Was Otto Guericke, A Magistrate Of Magdeburgh ; His Machine ...

Air Stove
Air Stove. A Stove, The Heat Of Which Is Employed To Heat A Stream Of Air Directed Against Its Surface, Which Air Is Then Admitted To The Apartments Requiring To Be Heated. The Principle Of The Construction Is, To Inclose The Stove Containing The Fuel In A Casing Somewhat Larger ...

Albumen
Albumen. A Viscous Ropy Fluid, Found In Its Greatest Purity In White Of Eggs, From Whence It Derives Its Name. The Serum Or Colourless Part Of The Blood, The Crystalline Humours Of The Eye, And All Animal Matters, Contain It In Great Abundance. It Is Also Found In Many Vegetables, ...

Alchemy
Alchemy. The Word Is Derived Tkom The Arabia Al (the) And Kemia (excellent), And Signifies The Most Exalted Science. It Is A Branch Of Chemistry, The Objects Of Which Were The Transmutation Of Inferior Metals To Gold ; The Discovery Of An Elixir Vitas, Or Universal Medicine ; An Universal ...

Alcohol
Alcohol. The Purely Spirituous Part Of Liquors, Which Have Undergone The Vinous Fermentation. It Is The Product Of The Saccharine Principle Formed By The Successive Processes Of Vinous Fermentation And Distillation; And All Fer Mented Liquors Will Afford It. Although Brandy, Rum, Arrack, Malt Spirits, And The Like, Differ Much ...

Alloy
Alloy. A Combination Of Two Or More Metals. The Term Is Sometimes Employed To Denote The Inferior Metal Combined With Gold Or Silver. Thus It Is Said The Standard Gold Of Jewellers Is 18 Carats Of Gold And 6 Of Alloy, What Ever Metal The Alloy May Be. When Metals ...

Altitude
Altitude. The Height Of Any Place Or Thing ; One Of The Three Dimen Sions Of Solid Bodies ; Elevation Of The Celestial Bodies, &c. In Geometry, The Altitude Of A Figure, Or A Solid, Is The Perpendicular Distance Between Its Vertex And Base. The Altitude Of Buildings, Trees, &c. ...

Aludel
Aludel. The Recipient Of Vapourizing Sub • Stances Subjected To The Operation Of Heat. They Are Generally Of Earthenware, And Of Various Forms And Size. Sometimes Tubes Are Employed As Aludels, And Sometimes Vessels Of Large Capacity, According To The Nature Of The Substance Which Is To Be Condensed In ...

Amber
Amber. A Hard, Solid, Semi-transparent Substance, Found In Several Mines Of Prussia, In A Bed Of Argillaceous Mineral. It Is Also Found In Poland, France, Italy ; On The Shores Of The Baltic And Mediterranean, In The Neighbour Hood Of London, And In Various Other Parts. It Is Generally Considered ...

Ammonia
Ammonia. A Powerful Alkali, Sometimes Called The Volatile. In Its Pure State It Is A Gas Transparent And Colourless, And Possessing All The Mechanical Properties Of Ordinary Atmospheric Air. Its Smell Is Pungent And Suflbcating, And Its Taste Extremely Caustic. It Extinguishes Combustion, And Immediately Destroys Animal Life. One Hundred ...

Anchor
Anchor. A Heavy Curved Instrument, Used For Retaining Ships In A Required Position. The Forms Of Anchors, And The Materials Of Which They Are Made, Are Various. In Many Parts Of The East Indies The Lower Part Of The Anchor Is Formed Of A Cross Of A Very Strong And ...

Anemometer
Anemometer. An In Strument For Measuring The Strength Or Velocity Of The Wind. Among Various Machines Which Have Been Constructed For This Purpose, The Following One Has Been Found To Answer Very Well. It Consists Of An Open Frame A B C, Supported By A Shaft D, Upon Which It ...

Antimony
Antimony. A Brilliant White Metal Of A Laminated Or Striated Texture. It Is Very Brittle, And Cannot Be Rolled Into Sheets, Or Drawn Into Wire. The Spec. Gray. Of The Metal, Is 6.712 , It Melts At 8100, And Crystallizes In Pyramids When Cooling. At An Intense Heat It Is ...

Apollonicon
Apollonicon. A Musical Machine, On The Principle Of The Organ, Which, By Peculiar Modification Of The Pipes, Produces An Excellent Imitation Of The Tones Of All The Most Admired Wind Instruments; The Combined Effect Of The Whole Being Similar To That Of A Numerous And Well-chosen Orchestra. This Magnificent Contrivance, ...

Aqueduct
Aqueduct. A Conduit For Water, Constructed Of Different Materials, Built On Uneven Ground, For Preserving The Level Of Water, And Conveying It From One Place To Another. Aqueducts Are Distinguished Into Two Classes; The Visible, Or Such As Are Built On Arches Across Valleys And Marshes, And The Subter Raneous, ...

Arch Il
Arch Il. A Whitish Lichen, Growing Upon Rocks In The Canary And Cape Verd Islands, Which Yields A Rich Purple Tincture, Fugitive, Indeed, But Extremely Beautiful. This Weed Is Imported To Us As It Is Gathered : Those Who Prepare It For The Use Of The Dyer Grind It Betwixt ...

Arsenic
Arsenic. A Brittle Metal Of A Bluish White Colour, Possessing Very Little Lustre. By Exposure To The Atmosphere It Becomes Nearly Black, And Slightly Pulverulent. It Is Very Fusible, And Is Frequently Employed To Assist The Fusion Of Other Metals. At 856° Fahr. It Is Volatilized In White Fumes, Which ...

Assay
Assay. The Separation Of A Valuable Metal From Its Alloy Or Impurities. The Art Of Assaying Differs From That Of Analysis In This Respect : By Analysis The Various Component Parts Of The Mineral Or Alloy Are Separated, And Their Respective Quantities Estimated ; By Assay Only The Valuable Metal ...

Atmometer
Atmometer. The Name Given To An Instrument, By Its Inventor, Pro Fessor Leslie, To Measure The Quantity Of Exhalation From A Humid Surface In A Given Time. A Thin Ball Of Porous Earthenware, 2 Er 3 Inches In Diameter, With A Small Neck, Has Cemented To It A Long And ...

Atmospheric Air
Air, Atmospheric. From The Remotest Antiquity, Until A Comparatively Recent Period, The Air Was Considered As One Of Four Elements, Of Which All Things Were Compounded ; And It Was Generally Held To Be An Invisible, Impon Derable, And Simple Substance. Some Of The Ancients, It Is True, Had Vague ...

Attraction
Attraction Denotes The Tendency Which Is Observed In Bodies To Approach And Adhere To Each Other; It Is Also Sometimes Employed To Signify The Unknown Cause Of This Tendency. It Assumes Various Names, According To The Circum Stances In Which It Acts. Thus We Have The Attraction Of Gravitation—the Attraction ...

Auger
Auger. The Name Of A Very Efficient Instrument, Extensively Used By Car Penters, And Other Mechanics, For Boring Holes In Wood. There Are Several Varieties Adapted To Their Peculiar Offices, Or To The Prejudices Of Workmen. The Oldest, Or Common Auger, Has A Long Iron Shaft, With A Large Cross ...

Automaton
Automaton. In The Strict Sense Of The Word, A Piece Of Mechanism In Which The Effects Are Produced By Some Inanimate Force Contained Within It; The Word Is, However, More Commonly Used To Signify A Piece Of Mechanism Made To Resemble Some Animal, Whose Motions It Imitates By Means Of ...

Axle Tree
Axle-tree. The Pivot, Or Centre, Upon Which A Carriage Wheel Turns. They Were Formerly Made Of Wood, And, We Believe, Are To This Day, In Some Parts Of The Country, But Are Now Generally Constructed Of Iron. Numerous Improve Ments Have, Of Late Years, Been Introduced In Their Construction, Some ...

Balance
Balance. A Simple Machine, In Which The Lever Is Employed To Determine The Equality Or Difference Of Two Given Weights. Balances Are Of Various Kinds, Differing In Their Form, And In The Perfection Of Their Construction, According To The Nature Of The Objects For Which They Are Employed. The Common ...

Baling Machine
Baling Machine. A Ma Chine For Raising Water From The Hold Of Ships. When, From The Pumps Being Rendered Useless By An Accident, Or From The Extent Of A Leak, The Water Gains Upon The Pumps, The Method Usually Resorted To For Getting Rid Of It, Is To Bale It ...

Bandannas
Bandannas. A Name Given To A Certain Description Of Silk Handker. Chiefs Manufactured In The East Indies, The Patterns Of Which Generally Consist Of Square Or Circular Spots, Variously Arranged Upon A Red, Blue, Or Yellow Ground. An Imitation Of These Handkerchiefs Upon Cotton, Produced By First Dying Fine Calico ...

Barilla
Barilla. A Substance Imported, In Considerable Quantities, From Spain, And Extensively Used In Soap-works, Glass-works, And Various Other Chemical Arts. It Is Obtained By The Incineration Of The Salsola Soda, A Marine Plant, Which Is Cultivated With Great Care In The Neighbourhood Of Alicant And Car-. Thagena; That Of Alicant ...

Barkers Mill
Barker's Mill. A Simple And Ingenious Hydrostatic Machine, Invented More Than A Century Ago, By Dr. Barker, And Forming One Of The Most Simple Water Mills Ever Constructed. It Has Been Rarely Introduced In Practice, Although It Has Been Warmly Eulogized And Recommended By Moat Writers On The Subject Of ...

Barometer
Barometer. An Instrument By Which The Pressure Or Elasticity Of The Air Is Ascertained. It Consists Essentially Of A Glass Tube, Not Less Than 34 Inches In Length, Closed At One End. The Tube Is Completely Filled With Mercury, And Then Inverted In A Cup Or Box Of The Same ...

Barrel
Barrel. This Article, As Made By Coopers, Is Too Well Known To Need A De Scription; But The Air And Watertight Metallic Barrels Employed In The British Navy For Preserving Provisions, From Their Peculiarity Of Structure And Utility, Require A Place In This Work. Those Which We Shall Describe Are ...

Barrow
Barrow. A Machine For Carrying Loads By Manual Labour. Barrows Are Of Two Classes : Hand-barrows, And Wheel-barrows. Hand Barrows Consist Merely Of A Small Platform Attached To Two Poles Projecting Equally From Each End, And Carried By Two Men In The Manner Of A Sedan Chair. Wheelbarrows Are Made ...

Basket
Basket. A Fabrication Woven Of Straw, Rushes, Canes, And Other Elastic Materials ; But, In This Country, Principally Of Willow; Which Last, According To Their Growth, Are Called Osiers And Sallow.. Osiers For White Work Are Deprived Of Their Bark By An Instrument Called The Braker, And Afterwards Are Cleaned ...

Bath
Bath. A Receptacle Of Water In Which To Plunge, Wash, Or Bathe The Body. The Practice Of Bathing, Although Not So Common In This Country As On The Continent, Is Daily Becoming More General; And, In Most Large Towns, There Are Public Establishments, Where, At A Very Short Notice, Warm, ...

Battering Ram
Battering Ram. An Ancient Military Engine, Used For Destroying The Walls Of Fortified Places, But Which, Since The Invention Of Gunpowder, Is No Longer Used For That Purpose, As, By Means Of Cannon, The Attack Can Be Made From A Much Greater Distance ; But Machines Of This Description Are ...

Beam
Beam, In Building, A Piece Of Timber Resting Upon Walls, And Used To Sup Port The Floors Or Fronts Of Houses, To Suspend Weights From, &c. The Strength Of Beams To Each Other Is Inversely As The Length, And Directly As The Breadth And The Square Of Their Depth ; ...

Bedstead
Bedstead. The Forms Of Bedsteads Are So Numerous, And At The Same Time, So Well Known, As To Render Description At Once Tedious And Unnecessary ; We Shall, Therefore, Merely Notice A Bedstead Designed Especially For The Use Of Invalids. It Is The Invention Of Mr. Rawlin Of Pentonville, And ...

Beehive
Beehive. An Artificial Habitation For Bees, Usually Constructed Of Straw. This Description Of Hive Is So Well Known, That We Shall Only Remark Upon One Or Two Essential Points. First, Care Should Be Taken To Have The Hive Made Of Clean And Good Straw, And Of Suitable Thickness ; And, ...

Beer
Beer. A Fermented Liquor, Which Is Most Commonly Prepared From Malted Bar Ley, Although It Is Sometimes Made From Other Kinds Of Grain, Either Raw, Or Malted, As Wheat, Maize, Millet; Also From Sugar And Molasses ; And, Recently, From Mangel Wurzel ; In Fact, It May Be Obtained From ...

Bevil
Bevil. An Instrument For Measuring And Transferring The Angle Formed By Two Surfisces ; It Consists Merely Of Two Straight Legs, Turning Upon A Com Mon Centre, And Is Used By The Two Limbs Coinciding With The Surfaces Where An Angle Is To Be Ascertained. The Annexed Engraving Represents An ...

Biscuit
Biscuit. A Species Of Unleavened Bread. There Are Several Sorts Of Bis Cuit, Each Having A Distinguishing Name ; But The Most Important, From Its Very Great Consumption, Is The Sea Biscuit, Destined For The Use Of Shipping. A New Baking Establishment Having Been Recently Formed At The Royal Clarence ...

Bistre
Bistre. A Brown Pigment, Consisting Of The Finest Part Of Wood-soot, Pul Verized, And Passed Through A Fine Sieve, Then Mixed With A Little Gum-water, Made Into Cakes, And Baked. It Is A Fine Transparent Colour, And Has Much The Same Effect In Water-painting, Where Alone It Is Used, As ...

Blasting
Blasting. An Operation Resorted To In Mines And Quarries For The Pur Pose Of Detaching Large Masses Of Earth Or Stones. The Implements Employed, (which Are Few And Simple,) Are Shown In The Engraving. Fig. 1. The Sledge Hammer, Or Mallet. Fig. 2. The Borer, Or Chisel. Fig. 3. The ...

And Punching Punch
Punch, And Punching. A Punch Is A Short, Stout Piece Of Steel, Or Of Iron Steeled, Used For Stamping Out Pieces Of Metal, So As To Make Perforations In Iron Or Other Plates, For The Insertion Of Rivets, Screws, Bolts, &c. In Punch Ing Thick Plates Of Metal, A Powerful ...

And Saw Mills Saws
Saws, And Saw-mills. A Saw Is A Cutting Instrument, With A Serrated Edge ; A Saw-mill; A Machine Or Building, Wherein Several Or Many Of These Instruments Are Actuated By Horse, Wind, Steam, Water, Or Other Power Not Derived From Human Agency. In The Earliest Ages, The. Trunks Of Trees ...