Alcohol

tubes, apparatus, vapour, receiver, plate, water, tube, box and aqueous

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Mode of conducting the operation. The cock p being opened, the wine from U passes through all the vessels into the two coppers, to the desired height, which is ascertained by the two glass gauges. The distilling column is charged with as much wine as will prevent a free passage of the vapour ; and when the condenser and cooler are full, the entrance of more wine is stopped, and the communication is not re-established by the cock p until the wine in the coppers has parted with its alcohol, and the liquid in the condenser is hot enough to be introduced into the distilling column. After this, a small stream, proportioned to the size of the apparatus and the rapidity of the work, is kept constantly running from S, and then begins what is termed the continued process, all the previous work being only preparatory. After this, the supply of the vessels with wine, the evaporation, condensation, and cooling, go on independently, requiring only attention to the fire.

Winter's Patent Distilling Apparatus consists of two vessels of a peculiar construction, which may be applied to stills of every form ; and will enable the distiller to extract the whole of the spirit contained in the wash at one operation, instead of the repeated distillations necessary in the usual mode. These two vessels contain condensers, which, as in Solimani's apparatus, are surrounded by a fluid maintained at such temperatures, as to condense any desired portion of the aqueous parts of the vapour from the still before it enters the refrigerator. The apparatus is shown in the annexed Fig. 1. A is a tube by which the vapours enter from the still into the first receiver B; C a conical surface or plate ; D the principal vapour tube, which being closed at the top, the vapours descend by the small tubes G into the chamber F. These small tubes are placed all around the principal tube, which are inserted in the holes shown in the engraving just above D. The apparatus is surrounded with water heated to 1700, and is contained in the tub or bath T, shown in section ; and as the vapours contained in the tubes are, by this arrangement, separated into small portions, a rapid condensation of the aqueous parts takes place. A number of bent tubes, as at H, are fixed in the annular plate, which covers the receiver at B with their upper ends, a little above the surface, which serve to carry off the condensed liquid back into the receiver B. The vapour improved in its spirituosity, is then collected in the chamber F, and passes from thence by the tube I into the second receiver K. The top plate of this receiver K, as well as the bottom plate of the third receiver N, have a number of openings or apertures forming concentric circles, as at L L;Fig. 2, in the plan of the apparatus, which we also annex. Into each of these annular apertures L L are fixed two copper cylinders, one within the other, and only a quarter of an inch apart; and as there are four such apertures, there are consequently eight cylinders, or four pairs in the apparatus, which are exhibited in section in the annexed Fig. I. at M M. 0 0

are tubes which pass through the receiver at K, to convey water between the cylinders; similar tubes are passed through the receiver N, by which means the water is diffused over every part of the extended surface of the apparatus, effecting thereby almost as rapid a condensation of the aqueous portion of the vapour, as if the water were in actual contact with it. The vapours from the lower receiver 1K ascend, as before mentioned, through the narrow spaces between the cylinders into the upper receiver N, in a high state of purity and strength. From this last hold it proceeds into the worm by the tube P, where it is instantly condensed by the refrigerating effect of the cold water, by which this part of a distillatory apparatus is always surrounded. The water contained in the second bath T, shewn in section, is heated to 140° (or less, as the strength of the spirit may require,) that being a temperature at which the vapour of water, as well as that from the empyreumatic oils, cannot exist. This apparatus is stated to be so effective, that in an experiment made at an eminent distillery in London, in the presence of several experienced distillers, "feints 80 per cent. under proof were pat into the still, and came out at one operation at 55 per cent. over proof." Grimble's Patent Distilling Apparatus consists of a series of very small tubes, fitted to the mouth of an ordinary still, the upper ends being received into a close box, from whence the uncondensed vapour passes on to the worm, whilst the condensed portion is returned to the still. It to shewn in the panying engraving, where A is the still ; B the bottom box of the apparatus, fitting on the still; b b a plate of copper, fitting on the box B; ecc are open tubes, through which the vapour ascends into the top box D, where the sepa ration of the aqueous vapour takes place from the spirits; the tubes c c c project through the bottom plate of the box D, so that the oily and aqueous matters are not allowed to return by the small tube, which would impede the vapour issuing from the still, but run back into the still by the larger corner tubes d d, which are ou a level with the bottom plate at e e. The lower ends of these tubes are turned up syphon-wise, to prevent the ascent of the vapour from the still. c c is a stay plate for the tubes ; in the box B is a range of tubes g g g, through which a current of cold water is maintained when the spirit is required very strong, (but not generally used) having its egress and exit at f h. F is the _pipe that conveys the spirituous vapour into the worm, and a thermometer at E serves to regulate the operations. We understand that an apparatus of this description is or was in use at Messrs. Booth and Co.'s distillery, but do not know bow far it answered the proposed end.

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