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Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopedia

Isinglass
Isinglass. A Solid Glutinous Substance, Almost Wholly Gelatine, Chiefly From A Fish Of The Sturgeon Kind, Caught In Rivers Of Gary. The Belluga Yields The Greatest Quantity, As Being The And Moat Plentiful Fish In The Rivers Of Russia; But The Sounds, Or Air Bladders Of All Freshwater Fish, Yield, ...

Ivory
Ivory. The Tusk Of The Male Elephant. It Is An Intermediate Substance Between Bone And Horn—hard, Solid, White, And Capable Of Taking A Polish. The Finest, Whitest, And Most Compact Ivory Comes From Ceylon, H, It Is Observed, Keeps Its Colour Better, And Therefore Bears A Higher Value Than The ...

Ivory Paper
Ivory Paper. The Properties Which Render Ivory So Desirable A Subject For The Miniature Painter And Other Artists, Are The Evenness And Fineness Of Its Grain, Its Allowing All Water Colours Laid On Its Surface To Be Washed Out With A Soft Wet Brush, And The Facility With Which The ...

Jack Kitchen
Jack (kitchen). A Machine In Which The Descent Of A Weight Is Made To Turn A Spit. The Ordinary Construction Is Represented In The Annexed Sketch, Which May Be Briefly Described As Fol Lows :—a Is A Barrel, Round Which Is Coiled A Line Of Considerable Length ; The Other ...

James Watt
James Watt Was Born At Greenock, Scotland, In The Year 1736. At The Age Of Sixteen He Was Apprenticed To An Optician, So Called, A Person Wh..—" Byturns A Cutler And A Whitesmith, A Repairer Of Fiddles, And A Tuner Of Spinets"—tendered His Humble Ingenuity In Any Heterogeneous Offices For ...

Japanning
Japanning. The Art Of Painting And Varnishing, After The Manner Originally Practised By The Natives Of Japan, In The East Indies. It Is Employed For The Purpose Of Preserving And Beautifying Various Articles, Usually Of Wood And Metal, As Well As Of Paper, Leather, And Cloth, When They Are Properly ...

Kaleidoscope
Kaleidoscope. An Instrument For Creating And Exhibiting An Infinite Variety Of Beautiful Forms, Pleasing The Eye By An Ever-varying Succession Of Splendid Tints And Symmetrical Figures, And Enabling The Observer To Render Permanent Such As May Appear Appropriate For Any Branch Of The Ornamental Arts. This Instrument, The Invention Of ...

Kelp
Kelp. A Very Impure Carbonate Of Soda, Obtained By The Incineration Of Sea-weed, And Chiefly Employed In The Manufacture Of Glass. The Cultivation Of The Marine Plants For This Purpose Is Now Much Encouraged, From The Increased Value It Gives To Those Estates Which Have An Extent Of Coast Adapted ...

Kiln
Kiln. A Structure Or Machine Designed For Drying Substances By The Appli Cation Of Heat. Their Forms Are As Various As The Substances Or Manufacture For Which They Are Designed ; For, Although It May Be Said That A Certain Kiln Will Answer Several Purposes, Yet For One Single Purpose ...

Kite
Kite. A Fictitious Bird, Made Of Paper. This Well-known Juvenile Play Thing Has Been Of Late Years Applied To Several Objects Of Utility : The Fore Most Of These, And The Most Paramount In Importance, Is The Invention Of Captain Dansey, For Effecting A Communication Between A Stranded Ship And ...

Kneading
Kneading Is The Process Of Making The Stiff Panto Of Flour And Water For Being Afterwards Baked Into Bread. It Is Usually Effected By A Sort Ofpommel Ing Action Of The Hands And Arms, And Sometimes Of The Feet Of The Balers. A Variety Of Machines Have Been At Different ...

Knife Sharpeners
Knife-sharpeners. This Term Has Been Given To A Variety Of Con Venient Modern Instruments, Especially Adapted To The Sharpening Of Knives At Table, But Particularly Carvers, And Are Intended As Substitutes For The Common Steel. • For These Instruments Several Patents Have Been Obtained, And A Consi Derable Manufacture Of ...

Knives
Knives (including Forks). Knives Are Well-known Instruments, Made For Cutting A Great Variety Of Substances, And Adapted By Differences In Form To Various Uses; But The Two Principal Sorts May Be Classed Under The Terms Of Pocket-knives And Table-knives, With Their Now Necessary Accompaniments, Forks. The Manufacture Of These Articles ...

Laboratory
Laboratory. A Place Fitted Up And Supplied With The Necessary Apparatus For Chemical Operations. Laboratories For Conducting Chemical Processes On A Large Manufacturing Scale Will Of Course Vary In Their Arrange Ments According To The Main Object For Which They Are Designed. For Experi Mental And General Purposes A Laboratory ...

Lac
Lac. A Resinous Substance, The Product Of An Insect Found On Several Different Kinds Of Trees In The East Indies. These Insects Pierce The Small Branches Of The Trees On Which They Feed ; And The Juice That Exudes From The Wounds Is Formed By Them Into A Kind Of ...

Lace
Lace. V. A Delicate Kind Of Net-work, Composed Of Silk, Flax, Or Cotton Threads, Twisted Or Plaited Together. The Meshes Of This Kind Of Net Are Of A Hexagonal Figure, In Which Thick Threads Are Also Woven To Form The Pattern According To Some • N; And These Threads, Which ...

Lacquering
Lacquering Is The Application Of Transparent Or Coloured Varnishes To Metals, To Prevent Their Becoming Tarnished, Or To Give Them A More Agreeable Colour. The Basis Of Them Is Properly The Lac Described In The Preceding Article; But Other Varnishes Made By Solutions Of Other Resins, And Coloured Yellow, Also ...

Ladder
Ladder. A Portable Frame, Containing Steps For The Feet. There Are Various Kinds, Most Of Which Are Too Familiar To The Readers Of This Work To Need Description ; But There Is One Of A Very Ingenious Description, Described Under The Head Of Fire Escapes, Invented By Mr. Gre Gory, ...

Lake
Lake. A Name Given To Several Pigments Formed By Precipitating Colour Ing Matter With Some Earth Or Oxide. The Principal Lakes Are Carmine, Florence Lake, And Madder Lake; The First Of These Has Been Already Described Under Its Initial Letter. See Carmine. Florentine Lake Is Prepared From The Sediment Of ...

Lamp
Lamp. A Vessel In Which Fluid Combustibles Are Burned For The Purpose Of Affording Artificial Light. This Is Effected By Means Of A Wick Or Burner (com Monly Composed Of A Few Threads Of Linen Or Cotton), Which Is Immersed In The Fluid, And Its Upper Extremity Lighted ; The ...

Lantern
Lantern. A Transparent Cue To Contain A Light. Lanterns Are Of Various Kinds Adapted To Their Peculiar Uses; Most Of Them Are, However, Too Well Known To Need A Description Here. The Dark Lantern Is So Called From The Circumstance Of The Light Being Entirely Screened From Observation At Pleasure, ...

Lapidification
Lapidification. The Art Of Cutting And Polishing Stones As Practised By Lapidaries. The Stone To Be Cut Is Cemented To The End Of A Stick, And The Different Facets Or Planes On Its Surfaces Are Formed By A Little Simple Mill Con Trived For The Purpose. In India The Mill ...

Latch
Latch. A Simple Fastening To Doors. The Original And Simplest Form Of A Latch, Is The Little Falling Bar Hooked, And The Catch; The Former Being Fixed On The Door, And Dropping Into A Notch Of The Latter, Which Is Fixed To The Door-post. On The Opposite Side Of The ...

Laths
Laths Are Long, Thin, And Narrow Slips Of Wood Nailed To The Rafters Of A Roof To Sustain The Covering, Or To The Lasts Of A Room, In Order To Support Or Hold Up The Plaistered Ceiling ; They Are Also Used For Light Fencing And Various Other Purposes. Laths ...

Lead
Lead. A Metal Of A Bluish-white Colour, And When Recently Cut, Of Con Siderable Lustre. It Is Very Soft And Flexible ; Not Very Tenacious, And Conse Quently Incapable Of Being Drawn Into Very Fine Wire ; Yet Its Malleability Permits It To Be Extended, Either Under The Hammer Or ...

Leather
Leather. The Skins Of Animals, Combined In A Variety Of Ways With Astringent And Other Matters, To Adapt Them To Numerous Purposes Of Utility. The Art Of Preparing Leather Is Very Ancient, And Is Practised In Almost Every Country Of The World By Nearly Similar Processes. The Objects Obtained By ...

Lens
Lens, In Optics, A Piece Of Glass, Or Other Transparent Substance, Having Its Two Surfaces So Formed That The Rays Of Light Have Their Direction Changed By Passing Through It ; So That They Either Converge, Tending To A Not Beyond The Lens; Or Diverge, As If They Proceeded From ...

Level
Level. An Instrument Employed For Obtaining A Line Or Plane Parallel To The Plane Of The Horizon. One Principal Use Of The Level Is_to Find The Difference Of Elevation Of Two Or More Planes, For The Purposes Of Conveying Water, Constructing Roads, &c. From One Place To Another. Among The ...

Levelling
Levelling. The Art Or Act Of Finding A Line Or Plane Parallel To The Plane Of The Horizon. The Uses To Which This Art Applies, Are The Determining The Height Or Depth Of One Place With Respect To Another ; The Laying Out Of Regulating Descents, Conducting Water, &c. It ...

Lever
Lever. One Of The Mechanic Powers, Or 'elements Of Machinery. It Is Usually Defined An Inflexible Bar, Movable Round A Fixed Point Of Support, Denominated The Fulcrum. There Are Three Kinds Of Levers, Distinguished By The Relative Positions Of The Power, Weight, And Fulcrum. In Levers Of The First Kind, ...

Lighthouse
Lighthouse. A Tower Or Other Lofty Building Erected Upon Some Head Land Or Rock Of The Sea-coast, The Upper Part Of Which Is Brilliantly Illuminated During The Night-time To Guide Ships In Their Course, Or Warn Them Of Con Tiguous Danger. The Fire-beacons Or Towers Used For This Purpose By ...

Lightning
Lightning. The Explosion Of The Electric Fluid In The Atmosphere Lightning Conductors, Are Pointed Metallic Rode Fixed To The Upper Parts Of Buildings, To Secure Them From Strokes Of Lightning. They Were Invented And Proposed By Dr Franklin For This Purpose, Soon After The Identity Of Electricity And Lightning Was ...

Lime
Lime One Of The Primitive Earths; And Since The Discovery By Sir H. Davy Of Its Metallic Base, Which He Denominated Calcium, It Is Regarded By Chemists As The Oxide Of Cakiwn ; That Important Substance Commonly Called Lime Being Found To Be A Combination Of Calcium And Oxygen. The ...

Lint
Lint. The Scrapings From The Siirface Of Old Linen Cloth, Forming A Very Soft Absorbent Material, Peculiarly Adapted To The Drooling Of Wounds; • For Which Purpose It Is Chiefly Used. This Material Is Prepared For The Use Of Sur Geons, And As An Article Of Commerce, In The Following ...

Liqueurs
Liqueurs. This Name, Adopted From The French, Is Given To A Variety Of Odoriferous, Fine Flavoured, Alcoholic Liquors ; The Processes Of Preparing Which Have Been Given In Various Parts Of This Work ; See Eau De Cologni, Eau Di Locs, &c. In This Place We Shall Insert The Description ...

Lock
Lock. A Secret Fastening For Doors And Similar Things, Provided With An Arrangement Of Mechanism Designed To Prevent The Introduction Or Successful Operation Of Any Instrument But That Which Has Been Made To Fit It, Called The Key : There Is Consequently A Numerous Variety Of Kinds, Qualities, And Sizes. ...

Log
Log. A Machine Or Apparatus Used To Measure The Rate Of A Ship's Velocity Through The Water. For This Purpose There Are Various Inventions ; But The One Mostly Used Is The Following, And Called The Common Log. It Is A Piece Of Thin Board, Forming The Quadrant Of A ...

Logarithms
Logarithms Are Series Of Artificial Numbers, So Arranged With Reference To A Set Of Natural Numbers That The Addition Of The Logarithms Shall Correspond With The Multiplication Of The Natural Numbers Belonging To Them ; And Sub Traction Of Logarithms Answers For Division ; While Involution, Or The Raising Of ...

Machine
Machine. In Grinding Wheat, It Is Usually The Endeavour Of Millers To Separate All The Flour From The Husk Without Pressing It So Hard As To Kill It, And Without Dete Riorating Its Colour By Making Minute Greys. This They Have Not Been Enabled To Effect In A Desirable Manner ...

Magic
Magic. The Imposture By Which A Few Individuals, Who Had Become Acquainted With Some Of The More Remarkable Phenomena Of Nature, And The Operations Of Chemistry, Managed To Enslave The Minds And Bodies Of Their Igno Rant Fellow-creatures. An Acquaintance With The Motions Of The Heavenly Bodies, And The Variations ...

Malt
Malt. Grain Which Has Become Sweet From The Conversion Of Its Starch Into Sugar, By An Incipient Growth Or Germination Arti Ficially Induced, Called Malting. In Malt Ing Barley The Usual Method Is To Steep The Grain In A Sufficient Quantity Of Water For Two Or Three Days, Till It ...

Mangle
Mangle. A Domestic Machine Of Great Utility, Employed In Smoothening Linen, As A Substitute For The Heated Irons Extensively Used For The Same Purpose. In The Common Mangle, As Most Of Our Readers Well Know, The Linen Or Other Articles To Be Mangled, Are Wrapped Round Wooden Rollers, Which Are ...

Manometer
Manometer, An Instrument For Measuring The Rarefaction And Conden Sation Of Elastic Fluids, But Especially That Of The Atmosphere. It Differs From The Barometer Which Shows Only The Weight Of The Superincumbent Column Of Air ; Whereas The Manometer Shows The Density, Which Depends On The Combined Effect Of Weight ...

Mast
Mast. A Long Round Piece Of Timber, Raised Perpendicularly On The Keel Of A Ship, Upon Which Are Attached The Yards, The Sails, And The Rigging. A Mast, According To Its Length, Is Either Formed Of One Single Piece, Which Is Called A Pole Mast, Or Composed Of Several Pieces ...

Measure
Measure. A Quantity Assumed At Pleasure, And Considered As Unity, Or One, To Which The Ratio Of Other Quantities Being Determined, Their Relative Mag Nitude, Both To The Assumed Unit, And To Each Other, Will Be Known. The Quan Tity Assumed As Unity, Is Called The Measuring Unit. Thus, To ...

Mechanic Powers
Mechanic Powers Are Those Simple Machines Or Elements That Enter Into The Construction Of The Various Parts Of Machinery: They Are Usually Con Sidered To Be Six In Number ; Viz. The Lever, The Wheel And Axle, The Pulley, The Inclined Plane, The Wedge, And The Screw. It May Be ...

Mercury
Mercury Is A Metal Distinguished From All Others By Its Extreme Fusibility, Which Is Such That It Does Not Take The Solid State Until It Is Cooled To The Below 0 In Fahrenheit's Thermometer, And Is Therefore Always Fluid In The Tem Perate Climates Of The Earth. From This Circumstance, ...

Metals
Metals. A Numerous Class Of Undecompounded Bodiei, Which Are Distinguish Able By Their Lustre, Ductility, Malleability, Tenacity, Opacity, &c. They Are Fusible By Heat, And In Fusion Retain Their Lustre And Opacity ; And They Are All, Except Sele Nium, Excellent Conductors, Both Of Electricity And Caloric. When They Are ...

Microscope
Microscope; From Two Greek Words, Signifying Small, And To View. An Optical Instrument For Viewing Small Objects, Rendering Those Visible Which Can Not Be Distinguished By The Naked Eye, And Magnifying Those That Can. The Forms Of Microscopes Are Very Numerous, But They May All Be Included In Three Distinct ...

Milk
Milk. A Fluid Secreted By The Females Of The Class Mammalia. Although The Proportions Of Its Constituents Vary In Different Animals, Its General Proper Ties Are The Same In All. When This Fluid Is Allowed To Stand For Some Time, It Undergoes Spontaneous Changes, And Is Resolved Into Its Component ...

Mills
Mills Are Machines For Triturating All Kinds Of Substances Capable Of Being Reduced Or Pulverized By Their Action. Those Employed For Converting Grain Into Flour, By Rubbing It Between Two Bard Surfaces, Are Generally Of Stone. The Earliest Species Of Mills Were Of A Very Rude And Simple Consisting Of ...