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Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopedia

Mine And Mining
Mine And Mining. Mine Is A Term Applied To Works Carried On Under Ground. For Obtaining Minerals Generally, But Chiefly For Metallic Ores. The Internal Parts Of The Earth, As Far As They Have Been Investigated, Consist Of Various Strata Or Beds Of Substances, Extremely Different In Their Appearances, Specific ...

Mint
Mint. The Place In Which The King's Money Is Coined. Formerly Mints Existed In Almost Every Country, For Notwithstanding The Coining Of Money Appears At All Times To Have Been Considered A Special Prerogative Of The Crown, The Saxon Princes Ceded The Privilege To Their Subjects To A Great Extent, ...

Mortar
Mortar. A Cement Made Of Lime, Sand And Water. See Lime. Mortar. A Strong Hollow Instrument, Usually Made Of Marble, Wedge Wood Ware, Or Metal, In Which Hard Or Brittle Substances Are Pulverized By Percussion Or Grinding With Another Instrument Called A Pestle. Mortars Usually Partake Of The Shape Of ...

Muller
Muller. A Tool Employed For Holding Or Grinding Substances Upon A Stone. The Glass-grinders Thus Call The Instrument Used For Grinding Their Glasses, Which Consists Of A Round Piece Of Mood, About Six Inches Long, To One End Of Which Is Cemented The Glass To Be Ground, Whether Convex In ...

Muriatic Acid
Acid, Muriatic, May Be Obtained By Distillation From A Mixture Of Com Mon Salt With Clay Or Bole, Which Is The Original Process ; But It Is Now Only Used Where Fuel And Pottery Earths Are Cheap, And Oil Of Vitriol Dear. The Method Most Commonly Practised At Present To ...

Nails
Nails Are Small Spikes Or Pegs Of Metal, Usually Of Iron, Extensively Used In Building, And Generally In The Constructive Arts. From The Immense Quan Tities Of Nails Made In This Country, The Manufacture May Be Deemed One Of First-rate Importance ; For, In The Neighbourhood Of Birmingham Alone, Upwards ...

Nautical Indicator
Nautical Indicator. For Finding The Latitude, Longitude, And Varia Tion, Invented By James Hunter, Member Of The Glasgow Philosophical Society. The Indicator Consists Of A Stand, Supporting A Circular Plate Of Polished Brass, About 14 Inches In Diameter, Representing The Horizon, And Marked And Num Bered Accordingly With The Proper ...

Needles
Needles. Well Known Little Instruments, Usually Made Of Steel, Pointed At One End, And Perforated At The Other, To Receive A Thread, For Sewing With, &c. The Processes Of Manufacturing Needles Have Been Much Varied, But The Following Account Combines The Most Recent Improvements. Steel Wire Of The Size Required, ...

Net
Net. A Trellis-like Fabric Of Threads Or Cords, Chiefly Used For Entrapping Fish, Birds, And Other Animals. The Term Is Likewise Applied To A Particular Branch Of Manufacture, Of A Fine Open Texture, Usually Applied To The Purposes Of Dress. The Making Of The Former Description Of Net Is An ...

Nickel
Nickel. A White Metal, Which, When Pure, Is Both Ductile And Malleable, And May Be Forged Into Very Thin Plates, Whose Colour Is Intermediate, Between That Of Silver And Tin, And Is Not Altered By The Air • It Is Nearly As Hard As Iron. Its Specific Gravity Is 8.279, ...

Nitric Acid
Acid, Nitric, May Be Made In Various Ways, But That Most Commonly Employed, Is To Decompose Saltpetre, Or Nitrate Of Potash, By Concentrated Sulphuric Acid, In An Apparatus Similar To That Used In The Preparation Of Mu Riatic Acid, Except That Four Cylinders Are Usually Heated By One Fire. The ...

Nitrogen
Nitrogen. A Simple Or Undecomposed Gaseous Substance, Was First Dis Tinguished By Dr. Rutherford, In 1772. It Is Sometimes Called Note, From Its Inability To Support Animal Life ; But It Is Commonly Designated From Its Being An Essential Ingredient In Nitric Acid. It Constitutes Of The Volume Of And ...

Odometer
Odometer. An Instrument For Measuring The Distance Travelled Over By A Post-chaise Or Other Carriage ; It Is Attached To The Wheel, And Shows, By Means Of An Index And Dial-plate, The Distance Gone Over. Oil. The Distinctive Characters Of Oil Are Unctuosity And Inflammability, Insolubility In Water, And Fluidity ...

Oil Colour Cakes
Oil-colour Cakes. A Convenient Preparation For The Use Of Artists, Invented By Mr. George Blackman, For Which That Gentleman Was Awarded A Medal By The Society Of Arts. Take, Says Mr. Blackman, Of The Clearest Gum Mastich, Reduced To Fine Powder, Four Ounces; Of Spirits Of Turpentine, One ; Mix ...

Optics
Optics. The Science Which Treats Of The Nature Of Light, And The Pheno Mena Of Vision. Our Prescribed Limits Will Not Allow Of Our Giving More Than A Brief Outline Of The Elements Of This Sublime Science, Which Has Employed The Pens Of Some Of The Most Illustrious Philosophers In ...

Ores
Ores. The Natural Bodies Whence Metals Are Extracted. Metallic Sub Stances, When Found Pure, Are Called Native; But When Combined With Other Substances, As They Generally Are, They Are Denominated Ores. As It Is Of The Utmost Importance To Be Acquainted With The Materials Of Which Ores Are Com Posed, ...

Organ
Organ. A Large And Very Harmonious Musical Instrument, Of Considerable Antiquity. They Were First Introduced Into This Country About The Fourteenth Century, Although Instruments Of A Similar Nature, But Of A Less Refined Construc Tion, Were In Use Long Prior In Some Of The Cities Of The Southern And Western ...

Oven
Oven Is A General Term Applied To Variously Formed Apparatus Employed For Baking Or Drying Different Substances, Many Of Which Have Been Described In The Course Of This Work ; We Shall Therefore Confine Ourselves, In This Place, To An Account Of That Particular Class Of Ovens Which Are Used ...

Oxygen
Oxygen, Which, Uncombined, Is Known Only As A Gaseous Substance, Was Discovered By Dr. Priestley, In 1774. It Has Been Called Dephlogisticated Air, Empyreal Air, And Vital Air. The Term Oxygen Was Given On The Supposition That It Was The Sole Cause Of Acidity. This Substance Is Highly Important In ...

Painting
Painting, House. The Art Of Covering With Various Suitable Pigments The Wood-work, Plaster Walls And Ceilings, Iron Work, &c., Of The Interior And Exterior Of Houses. It May Be Divided Into Three Separate Branches, Viz.— Plain Painting, Graining, And Ornamental Painting. The Material Chiefly Employed In Plain Painting Is White ...

Paper
Paper. Thin Leaves Or Abeets, Fabricated Of Fibrous Materials, And Adapted To Write Or Draw Upon, As Well As For Numerous Other Purposes. Paper Is An Article Of Such Immense Importance In The Commercial World, And Of Such General And Extensive Utility, That It Will Be Well To Give, In ...

Paper Manufacture
Paper Manufacture. The First Paper Mill Established In England Was At Dartford, By A German, (who Was Jeweller To Queen Elizabeth,) About The Year 1588. For A Long Period Afterwards The Manufacture Was, However, Of So Inferior A Quality As To Render It Necessary To Have Recourse To France And ...

Paragrandine
Paragrandine. A New Invention, The Object Of Which Is To Avert Hail Storms, Acting In The Same Manner As The Electric Conductors For Obviating Danger From Lightning. In This Climate The Hail Is Seldom So Violent As To Occasion Any Very Serious Losses ; But In Many Parts Of The ...

Parallel Motion
Parallel Motion. A Term Applied By Practical Machinists To An Arrangement Of Parallel Bars, By Which The Alternating Rectilinear Motion Of A Piston Rod Is Made To Work Harmoniously With The Alternating Curvilinear Motion Of A Rocking Beam. As The Beam Of All Engines Vibrates Upon A Centre, Of Course ...

Parallel Ruler
Parallel Ruler. An Instrument For Drawing Lines Parallel To Each Other. The Simplest Parallel Ruler Is The Common Cylindrical Ruler Of The Counting-house, Represented At Fig.1; It Serves Very Well For Common Purposes, Where Great Exactness Is Not Required. Fig. 2 Is The Common Parallel Ruler, Consisting Of Two Fiat ...

Parchment
Parchment. A Durable Material, Prepared From The Skins Of Sheep And Goats, But Chiefly The Former, And For Writing Upon, The Covers Of Books, And Various Other Purposes. The Skin Is Stripped Of Its Wool, And Passed Through The Lime-pit. The Skinner Then Stretches It On A Frame, Perforated Lon ...

Parting
Parting, In Metallurgy, Is An Operation By Which Gold And Silver Are Sepa Rated From Each Other. In This Sense It Is The Same With Refining Metals, Or Obtain Ing Them In A Pure State. Gold And Silver Are Culled Perfect Metals, Because They Areapable Of Withstanding The Action Of ...

Pearl Shell
Pearl-shell. A New Process Of Working Pearl-shell Into A Variety Of Devices, For The Purpose Of Applying It To Ornamental Uses In The Manufacture Of Japan Ware And Other Articles, Has Lately Been Invented By Messrs. Aaron Jennings, And John Betteridge, Of Birmingham. The Process Is Similar To That Of ...

Pearls
Pearls. A Calculus Or Morbid Concretion, Formed In Consequence Of Some External Injury Which The Muscle Or Shell-ash Receives That Produces It, C: Icularly From The Operations Of Certain Minute Worms, Which Occasionally Even Quite Through To The Animal. The Pearls Are Formed In The Inside, On These Places ; ...

Pen
Pen. A Well-known Instrument For Writing. In The Earliest Ages, Writing Was Executed With Styles Of Metal Or Other Hard Substance, Which, After A Time, Were Superseded By Pens And Coloured Inks. The First Pens Were Made Of Reeds, Or Small Hard Canes, About The Size Of The Largest Swan ...

Pencil
Pencil. An Instrument Used By Painters For Laying On Their Colours ; They Are Of Various Kinds. The Larger Sorts Are Made Of Boars' Bristles, The Thick Ends Of Which Are Bound To A Stick, Large Or Small, According To The Uses They Are Designed For ; These, When Large, ...

Pepper
Pepper. A Well-known Spice, Of Which There Are Three Kinds,—the Black, The White, And The Long Pepper To These We May Now Add A Fourth, Bleached Pepper, A Patent Process Which The Black Pepper Undergoes In This Country To Render It White. Black Pepper Is Cultivated With Such Success At ...

Perspective Instruments
Perspective Instruments. A Mechanical Contrivance Designed To Facilitate The Making Of Drawings In Perspective, Especially By Such Persons Who Are Unacquainted With The Rules By Which It Is Performed. Some Of These Instruments Are On Optical Principles, Such As The Camera Obscure, And The Camera Lucida, Already Noticed Under Their ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus. A Substance Which Shines By Its Own Light The Dis Covery Of This Singular Substance Was Accidentally Made In 1877, By An Alchemist Of Ilamburgh, Named Brandt, When He Was Engaged In Searching For The Philo Sopher's Stone. Mr. Boyle Is Also Considered To Have Discovered It ; He ...

Photometer
Photometer. An Instrument Designed To Exhibit The Different Quan Tities Of Light, Especially In Bodies Illuminated In Different Degrees. In Lesslies Photometer, The Essential Part Is A Glass Tube, Like A Reversed Syphon, Whose Two Branches Should Be Equal In Height, And Terminated By Balls Of Equal Diameter : One ...

Or Alarum Alarm
Alarm, Or Alarum, Is A Term Applied To A Variety Of Instruments Con Structed For The Purpose Of Producing Sufficient Sound Or Noise To Awaken A Person From Sleep, Or Otherwise To Give Notice Of Some Occurrence, Or Warning, Of The State Of The Time, &c. Glenny And Darby's Fire ...

Or Ambergrease Ambergris
Ambergris, Or Ambergrease. A Solid, Opake, Fatty Substance, Found On The Sea-coast, Or Sometimes Floating On The Sea, Chiefly In The Tropical Regions. It Is Of Various Colours, But Generally Of A Deep Ash-coloured Yellow. It Is Most Frequently Obtained In Small Fragments, But Large Masses, Weighing From 100 To ...

Or Arc Arch
Arch, Or Arc. In Geometry, A Part Of A Curve Line, As Of A Circle Or An Ellipse, &c. Arch, In Architecture, An Aperture, The Upper Portion Of Which Is Bounded By Curve Lines, As We See In Porches, Bridges, &c.; They Are Of Various Forms, And Are Designated By ...

Or Aurum Musivum
Aurum Musivum, Or Mossicum, Is A Combination Of Tin And Sulphur, Having The Appearance Of Bright Gold In Powder. It Is Used By Japanners, And For Varnished Works, As Snuff-boxes, Tea-trays, &c., Also To Statue And Plaster Figures. The Usual Process Of Preparing It Is As Follows : Amalgate 12 ...

Or Fulminating Powders Detonating
Detonating Powders, Or Fulminating Powders. Certain Chemical Compounds, Which, On Being Exposed To Heat Or Friction, Explode With A Loud Report, Owing To One Or More Of The Constituent Parts Assuming The Elastic State With Such Rapidity As To Strike The Displaced Air With Great Violence. The Most Common Detonating ...

Or Indian Corn Maize
Maize, Or Indian Corn Being Now Cultivated To Some Extent In Dif Ferentparm Of This Country, We Have Given The Engraving On The Following Page Of A Machine For Husking The Corn, Or Separating The Grains From The Ear, A Process Equivalent To That Of Thrashing Employed For Other Grain. ...

Or Lozenges
Lozenges, Or Taman, Are Small Articles Of Confectionery, Sometimes Medicated, And Usually Made Up Of The Form Of Thick Wafers. The Basis Of Their Composition Is Refined Sugar, Which Is Finely Pulverised And Sifted, Then Mixed Up In A Mortar, With Just A Sufficient Quantity Of Thick Mucilage, To Make ...

Or Lute
Lute, Or Lorin°. A Mixed, Tenacious, Ductile Substance, Which Being Applied Between Thejunctures Of Distillidory And Other Vessels, Grows Solid By Drying, And Effecmally Stops Up The .crevices. Lutes Are Of Different Kinds, According To The Nature Of The Operations To Be Made. When Vapours Of Watery Liquors, And Such ...

Or Pa Pent
Pa Pent, Or Letters Patent, Is A Writ Or Grant In The King's Name, And Under The Great Zeal, Designed To Secure To The Proprietor Of Any New Invention The Monopoly Of Its Advantages For The Term Of Fourteen Years ; But This Term Is Some Times Extended, Under Extraordinary ...

Or Pavement Paving
Paving, Or Pavement. A Layer Or Covering Of Stone Or Brick, Carefully Laid Over Roads, Paths, Halls, Passages, &o., And To Form Stone Floors In The Interior Of Buildings. Pavements Of Flint And Flags, In Streets, Are Commonly Laid Dry, That Is, In Beds Of Sand Or Gravel ; Those ...

Or Phonics
Phonics, Or Acousrics. A Science Which Treats Of The Nature And Mode Of Propagation Of Sound. Whenever Any Elastic Body Is Made To Vibrate, It Produces Corresponding Vibrations In The Air Surrounding It ; These Acting On The Ear, Cause Its Internal Parts To Vibrate And Excite In Us The ...

Or Plated Manufacture Plating
Plating, Or Plated Manufacture. The Art Of Covering Other Metals With Silver. The Method Known By The Name Of French Plating Was Usually Applied To Articles Made Of Brass, After They Were, In Other Respects, Finished. After The Goods Were Polished, And Perfectly Free From Grease, &c., The Part To ...

Or Potash
Potash, Or Potassa, Is The Protoxide Of Potassium. It Is Called The Vegetable Alkali, Because It Is Obtained In An Impure State By The Incineration Of Vegetables. Potash Is Always Formed When Potassium Is Put Into Water, Or When It Is Exposed At Common Temperatures To Dry Air Or Oxygen ...

Or Sun Dial Dial
Dial, Or Sun Dial. An Instrument For Measuring Time By Means Of A Shadow Cast By The Sun Upon A Surface Properly And For The Purpose. Sun Dials Are An Invention Of Very Great Antiquity, And Are Frequently Mentioned In The Bible ; And Vitnivius Speaks Of One Made By ...

Or Violoncello
Violoncello, Or Bass Viol ; By Similar Instrument In Construction To The Violin, But Of A Larger Size, And Ravin G A More Powerful Effect. An Improve Ment In The Violoncello Was Lately Meu By Mr. S. A. Forster, Of Frith Street, Bobo, London, For Which That Gentleman Received An ...

Or Water Clepsydra
Clepsydra, Or Water Ctocx. A Contrivance Of Very Great Antiquity, To Measure The Lapse Of Time, And Indicate The Hour By The Flowing Of Water Into Or Out Of A Vessel Properly Graduated. In The Former Case The Vessel Was Divided By Lines Into A Number Of Equal Arts, Which ...

Or White Lead Ceruse
Ceruse, Or White Lead, Is Commonly Made By Coiling Up Very Thin Cast Sheets Of Lead Into Rolls, So As To Leave A Small Space Between Each Fold. The Rolls Thus Formed Are Lightly Jammed Into The Mouths Of A Number Of Earthen Ware Pots, Which Are About Half Filled ...