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Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopedia

Refining
Refining, In Is The Art Of Purifying Any Thing ; But The Term Is Commonly Understood To Apply To The Purification Of Metals, Particularly Gold And Silver, From The Alloys With Which They May Be Mixed. As Gold And Silvet Alone Can Resist The Combined Action Of Air And Fire, ...

Resistance
Resistance, In Fluids, Is That Opposition To The Motion Of A Body Which Arises From The Inertia, Tenacity, And Friction Of The Parts Of The Fluid In Which It Moves. If Any Body Move Through A Fluid With A Given Velocity, It Will Evidently Displace A Certain Number Of Particles ...

Rice
Rice. A Hard, White, Farinaceous, And Ver7 Nutritive Grain, Which Grows In The East And West Indies, And Other Warm Climates ; It Grows To The Height Of About 2} Feet, With A Stalk Not Unlike That Of Wheat, But Fuller Of Joints, And Ivith Leaves Resembling Those Of The ...

Roads
Roads. The Subject Of This Article Opens To Us So Vast A Field Of Inquiry, Historical, Philosophical, And Mechanical, That It Is Impossible To Do Justice To Its Importance Within The Limits Prescribedlo Us. To The Curious Explorer Of Ancient Records, A Search Into The History Of Roads, From The ...

Roof
Roof. The Top Covering To A House Or Other Building ; In Which Sense It Com Prises The Timber Work, Slate, Tile, Lead, With Whatever Else Is Necessary To Form And Complete The Whole. Roofs Are Of Various Forms. First, The Putted Roof, In Which The Ridge, Or The Angle ...

Rope Making
Rope-making. The Art Of Forming Fibrous, Flexible, And Tenacious Sub Stances Into Cordage. The Principal Aim Of The Ropemaker Is To Unite The Strength Of A At Number Of Fibres. This Would Be Done Most Effectually, Were The Fibres Long Enough, By Laying Them Parallel To Each Other, And Fastening ...

Sa Go
Sa Go. A Nutritive Substance, Brought From The East Indies, Of Considerable Use In Diet As A•restorative. Sago Is Procured From A Tree Called Landau, Growing In The Moluccas : This Tree Is A Species Of The Palm, Which Grows Naturally In Japan, And Upon 'rocky, Dry Mountains In 'malabar, ...

Saddle
Saddle. A Seat Formed Upon A Horse's Back, For The Convenience Of The Rider. Saddles Are As Various As The Nations That Use Them ; And Even In The Same Country As In This They Are Made In A Variety Of Forms And Fashions, Which Are Too Familiar To Our ...

Saffron
Saffron. The Stigmata Of The Crocus Officinalis, Dried On A Kiln, And Pressed Into Cakes. It Is Grown In Various Parts Of Europe, As Well As In This Country. A Tracts Of Land About Ten Miles Across, Is Applied To The Culture Of This Valuable Product In Cambridgeshire. The Greatest ...

Salt
Salt. A Term Commonly Used In Chemistry, To Denote A Compound In Definite Proportions, Formed By The Union Of An Acid With An Alkaline, Earthy, Or Metallic Base. We Have Already Given • Brief Enumeration Of Some Of The Most Remarkable, Under The Article Cranaseity. In Consequence, However, Of The ...

Salt
Salt Winery • Though Usually So Denominated, Is Chemically, The Muriate Of Soda, And, According To Recent Discoveries, A Chloride Of Sodium, Being A Compound Of Chlorine, With The Metallic Base Of Soda. This Salt Is Obtained By A Variety Sf Methods. It Is Either Dug Out Of The Earth ...

Screw
Screw. The Screw Is One Of The Most Powerful And Useful Of The Simple Machines Or Mechanic Powers. It Is A Modification Of The Inclined Plane, As Will Easily Appear To Any One Who Reflects A Little On Its Construction. If A Triangular Piece Of Gaper Be Rolled Round A ...

Selenium
Selenium, In Chemistry, A New Substance Recently Discovered By Professor Berzelius, And Ranked By Him Among The Metals; Though Some Chemists Are Doubtful Whether It Might Not, With Greater Propriety, Be Classed With Sulphur, And Phosphorus. This Substance Was Obtained By Berzelius From The Pyrites Of Fablun, In Sweden. Its ...

Serge
Serge. A Woollen Quilted Stuff, Manufactured On A Loom With Four Treadles, After The Mannerrof Rateens, And Other Stuffs That Have The Whale. The Goodness Of Serges Is Known By The Quilting, As That Of Cloths By The Spinning. Of Serges There Are Various Kinds, Denominated Either From Their Different ...

Sewer
Sewer. A Subterranean Channel Or Canal, Formed In Cities, Towns, And Other Places, To Carry Off Water And Other Matters. The Construction Of The Common Sewers In General Use In The Metropolis, Is Represented In The Subjoined Ses,tion. A Is The Paved Roadway Of A Part Of A Street ; ...

Sheathing
Sheathing, In Naval Archileclare, A Sort Of Covering Nailed All Over The Outside Of A Ship's Bottom, To Protect The Planks From The Ravages Of Worms. Formerly, This Sheathing Consisted Only Of Boards Tarred And Payed Over; But Now Copper Is Resorted To, Not Merely As A Substitute, But As ...

Ship
Ship. The General Name For Any Large Vessel Fitted With One Or More Masts And Sails, For The Purpose Of Navigating On The Sea. The Name Ship Is, However, More Strictly And Properly Applied To A Vessel With Three Masts And A Bowsprit ; Each Mast Consisting At Least Of ...

Shot
Shot. A Missive Weapon Discharged By The Force Of Ignited Powder From A Fire-arm In Warfare: Of These There Are Various Kinds, As Round Shot, Or Bul Lets, A Ball Or Sphere Of Iron Whose Weight Is In Proportion To The Bore Of The Cannon. Double-headed, Or Bar-shot, Are Formed ...

Sieve
Sieve. An Instrument For Separating The Smaller Of Substances From The Grosser; They Are Made Of Various Forms And Sizes, To Suit The Article To Be Sifted. In Its Most Usual Form It Consists Of A Hoop, From 2 To 6 Inches In Depth, Forming A Fiat Cylinder And Having ...

Silk
Silk. A Very Soft, Fine, Bright Thread, The Production Of Different 'species Of Caterpillars ; But The Bombyx Mori, Or Silk-worm, Is Chiefly Cultivated For This. Purpose; It Is A Native Of China, And The Culture Of Silk, In Ancient Times, Was Entirely Confined To That Country, Where, We Are ...

Silver
Silver, Is The Whitest Of Metals, And Next To Gold The Moat Malleable And Ductile. Under The Hammer, The Continuity Of Its Parts Is Not Destroyed Until Its Leaves Are Not More Than The One Hundred And Sixty Thousandth Part Of An Inch Thick ; In This State It Does ...

Silvering
Silvering. The Art Or Act Of Covering Certain Substances; As Metal, Wood, Paper, Leather, Parchment, &c. With Silver, So As To Give Them The Appear Ance Of That Metal. Silver Leaf Is Laid On Much In The Same Way At Gold Leaf, For Which See Gilding. The Method Of Silvering ...

Size
Size. A Kind Of Weak Glue, Used In Many Trades; It Is Made Of The Shreds And Parings Of Leather, Parchment, Or Vellum, Boiled In Water, And Strained. Common Size Is Made Of Leather, Boiled In Water Till It Becomes Of A Viscid Con Sistence. If It Is Wanted In ...

Smoothing Irons
Smoothing Irons Are Of Various Kinds. The Box Iron Is A Polished Iron Box, Of A Form Nearly Triangular, And Provided With A Sliding Door, Through Which Is Put A Red-hot Heater. The Flat, Or Sad Iron, Which Is In More General Use, Is Simply A Heater Of Cast Iron, ...

Soap
Soap. A Name Given To Those Bodies Which Are Compounds Of The Alkalies With Fat And The Filed Oils. The Earths, And The Other Metallic Oxides Also, Com Bine With Fat And Oils, Forming Neutral Compounds. The Former Have Been Called Earthy, And The Latter Metallic Soaps. The Soaps Formed ...

Solder
Solder. A Metallic Cement For Joining Separate Pieces Of Metal Together By Fusion. It Is A General Rule, With Respect To Solder, That It Should Fuse At A Lower Temperature Than The Metal To Be Soldered. The Solders Of The Plumber Are Composed Of Tin And Lead, On Account Of ...

Soluble Glass
Glass, (soluble.) A Simple Silicate Of Potassa Or Soda, Which Unites Perfect Solubility In Boiling Water To Some Of The General Pro Es Of Common Glass In The Liquid State, It May Be Applied To Cloth Or Woo4 For The Purpose Of Ren Dering Them Incombustible. In Fact, By The ...