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Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopedia

Specific Gravity
Specific Gravity. The Weight Of Any Body, Or Substance, Compared With The Weight Of Some Other Body Which Is Assumed To Be A Standard. The Standard Of Comparison, By Common Consent And Practice, Is Rain Water, On Account Of Its Being Less Subject To Variation, In Different Circumstances Of Time ...

Spectacles
Spectacles. An Optical Instrument Consisting Of Two Lenses Set In Alight Frame', The Extremities Of Which Are Made Elastic, So As To Retain, By A Slight Pressure Against The Sides Of The Head, The Instrument In Its Place, Which Is Supported Upon The Nose Of The Wearer. The Use Of ...

Spermaceti
Spermaceti. A Substance Obtained From The Oil Found In The Head Of Several Species Of Whale, But Chiefly From The Physeter Seaereeephake. Though Analogous To Fat And Wax, It Differs From Them In Several Properties. It Is Of A Flaky Texture—soft, White, And Brilliant; Melts At 1130; And By Raising ...

Starch
Starch. A Well-known Substance Extracted From Wheaten Flour, By Washing It In Water. All Farinaceous Seeds Afford This Substance In A Greater Or Less Degree; But It Is Most Easily Obtained From The Flour Of Wheat, By Moistening Any Quantity With A Little Water, And Kneading It With The Hand ...

Steam
Steam. The Term Generally Employed To Designate Water In Its Elastic Form, At Or Above The Temperature Of 212°. It Is At Present Applied To Many Economical Purposes, As Well As In Various Manufactures, Independent Of Its Important Office In The Steam-engine. In Order To Make Water Boil, The Fire ...

Steam Engine
Steam-engine. A Machine Wrought By The Force Obtained From The Expansion And Contraction Of The Steam Of Boiling Water, And Employed As A First Moving Power To Other Machines. Among The Innumerable Contrivances Of Man To Administer To The Necessities And To Augment The Luxuries Of Life By Mechanical Agency, ...

Steam Navigation
Steam-navigation. The Propulsion Of Ships And Boats By The Expan Sive Force Of Steam. Amongst The Innumerable Advantages Derived From The Introduction Of Steam As A Motive Power, Its Application To The Purposes Of Navi Gation Very Far Surpasses All Others In Importance. 14 (u Our Ablest Writers And Political ...

Steelyard
Steelyard. A Machine For Ascertaining The Weights Of Bodies, Usually Denominated The Roman Balance. It Consists Of A Lever Of Unequal Arms, Sus Pended Horizontally ; To The Shorter Of The Two Arms Is Suspended The Article To Be Weighed, And On The Longer Arm A Weight Is Made To ...

Stranded
Stranded, In *ea Affairs, A Term, Which, When Applied To A Rope, Signifies That One, At Least, Of Its Strands Is Broken; But When Applied To A Ship, Or Vessel, It Means That She Has Run On A Rock Or Shoal, And Been Either Rendered Useless, Or Entirely Dashed To ...

Sulphuric Acid
Acid, Sulphuric, Is Obtained Either By Simple Distillation From Copperas, (which Was The Original Method,) Or By The Combustion Of Sulphur, In Large Leaden Chambers, In Combination With Substances Yielding A Large Supply Of Oxygen, Which Is The Method Generally Practised Et The Present Day. The Latter Process Is Conducted ...

Tawing
Tawing. The Art Of Preparing See Llather. Tea. The Dried Leaves Of The Tea-plant, Which Is A Native Of Japan, China, And Tonquin. The History Of Commerce Does Not Perhaps Present A Parallel To The Circumstances Which Have Attended The Introduction Of Tea Into This Country. The Leaves Were First ...

Teazle
Teazle. A Pleat, The Beads Of Which Are Employed In The Dressing Of Woollen Cloth, And For Which Operation No Substitute Equally Effective Has Hitherto Been Discovered. The Teazle Has Been Considered As Affording Almost A Solitary Instance Of A Natural Production Being Applied To Mechanical Purposes In The State ...

Telegraph
Telegraph. The Name Given To A Machine, By Which Intelligence May Be Transmitted, With Extraordinary Rapidity, To Great Distances. There Is Reason To Believe, That The Principle Of The Modern Invention Of Communicating Inform Ation By Means Of Signals, Is Of Great Antiquity. The Moderns Save, However, The Merit Of ...

Telescope
Telescope. An Optical Instrument, Employed For Discovering And View Ing Distant Objects ; Or Which Magnifies Their Natural Appearance, By Represent Ing Them Under A Larger Angle Than That Under Whichey Appear To The Naked Eye., Telescopes Are Divided Into Two General Kinds, ?erecting And R#kcting. A Refracting Telescope Consists ...

Tenacity
Tenacity. A Term Derived From The Latin, Implying The Property Or Holding Fast, Firmness, &c. • Some Authors Restrict Its Application To That Force By Which Metals Resist Their Being Pulled, Or Torn Asunder ; As The Action Of A Weight Suspended To The End Of A Wire ; And ...

Theatre
Theatre. An Edifice Or Great Room For The Public Exhibition Of Weak Representations, The Performance Of The Drama, Of Concerts, The Deliveryof Scien Tific Lectures And Demonstrations, &v. Considering That The Description Of A Theatre For The Latter Purpose Will Not Be Out Of Place In This Work, And Be ...

Thermometer
Thermometer. An Instrument For Measuring The Temperature Of Bodies; Founded Upon The Principle Of Augmentation In Volume Of Fluids, In Proportion To Their Absorption Of Caloric • And As Regards Aeriform Fluids, The Principle Is Probably Very Correct : Bat Solids, And Still More Liquids, Expand Unequally, By Equal Increments ...

Thermostat
Thermostat. The Name Given To An Instrument Invented And Recently Patented By Dr. Ure, For Regulating Temperature In Vaporiution, Distillation, And Other Processes, In Which The Agency Of Heat Is Required. It Is Effected By In Creasing Or Diminishing The Size Of The Apertures Through Which The Calorific Medium Is ...

Tide Mills
Tide-mills. Are Mills Or Any Kind Of Machinery Moved By The Ebbing And Flowing Of The Tide. Mills Of This Kind Are Not Very Common, On Account Of The Great Expense Of Their Construction ; But In Situations Where The Tide Rises To A Considerable Height, And Where The Fuel ...

Time
Time. According To Mr. Locke, Is "the Measure Of Duration." " We Acquire Our Notions Of Time," Says Dr. Robison, " By Our Faculty Of Memory, In Observing The Succession Of Events. Time Is Conceived By Us As Unbounded, Continuous, Homogeneous, Unchangeable In The Order Of Its Parts, And Divisible ...

Tin
Tin. A Metal Of A White Colour, Intermediate Between Silver And Lead. It Is Considerably Harder Than Lead ; Scarcely At All Sonorous ; Very Malleable, Being Capable Of Extension, Under The Hammer, To About A Two-thousandth Part Of An Inch In Thickness. The Ordinary Tinfoil Is About A One-thousandth ...

Tinning
Tinning. The 'art Of Covering Any Metal With A Thin Coating Of Tin. Copper And Iron Are The Metals Most Commonly Tinned. The Use Of Tinning These Metals Is To Prevent Them From Being Corroded By Rust, As Tin Is Not So Easily Acted Upon By The Air Or Water, ...

Transparencies
Transparencies. Is A Term Ordinarily Applied To Pictures, With Semi-transparent Or Translucent Materials, And Illuminated At The= As To Exhibit Them At Night. The Art Of Preparing Them Is As Follows:— The Paper (or Other Material) Must Be Fixed In A Straining Frame, In Order To Place It Between The ...

Truck
Truck. A Small Wheel Carriage To Be Moved By Hand; A Species Of Barrow With Two Wheels; They Are Made In A Great Variety Of Forms, To Adapt Them To Their Peculiar Objects, Such As The Moving Of Sacks, Bags, Casks, Cases, Lead, Iron, Copper, Stone, &c. &c. To Describe ...

Tunnel
Tunnel. An Artificial Arch Or Passage Under Ground. They Are Employed As The Means Of Conducting Canals Under Elevated Ground ; For The Formation Of Roads Under Rivers And Canals, And In The Construction Of Sewers And Drains, &c., &c. Tunnels Are Now Almost As Common As Canals And Bridges. ...

Turning
Turning. The Art Of Giving Circular And Other Forms To Solid Substances, In The Fabrication Of Innumerable Articles, By The Aid Of A Machine Called A Lathe./ There Is Perhaps No Contrivance With Which Human Ingenuity Has Aided The Dexterity Of The Mechanic More Entitled To Our Admiration Than The ...

Ultramarine
Ultramarine. A Beautiful Permanent Blue Pigment, Until Recently Obtained From The Lapis-lazuli, Or Azure-stone. (see The Article Asuaz-srosz, Where That Process Is Described.) A Method Of Forming Ultramarine Artj/iciallg Has, However, Been Recently Discovered By M. Gmelin. This Gentleman Was Led To Consider Sulphur As The Colouring Matter Of Ultramarine, ...

Umbrella
Umbrella. A Very Light Portable Canopy, Of A Circular Form, Framed Of Radiating Ribs Of Whalebone, Or Other Suitable Material Covered With Silk Or And Supported By A Central Staffover The Heads Of Persons, To Defend Them From Rain, Or The Scorching Of The Sun's Rays. These Well-known Convenient Machines ...

Uranium
Uranium. A Metal Discovered By Klaproth In 1789, In The Mineral Called Peck Blende. In This, It Is In The State Of Sulphuret. But It Likewise Occurs As An Oxide In The Green Mica, Or Uranglimmer, And In The Uranochre. In Obtaining It From Pech Blende, The Mineral Is Reduced ...

Urn
Urn. A Vessel Of A Vase Or Pitcher-like Form. The Vessels Employed To Keep Water Boiling At The Tea-table, Have Thus Been Called Tea-urns, Notwith Standing Every Possible Deviation Has Been Subsequently Made In Their Figure. The Of Ordinary Tea-urns Are Too Well Known To Our Readers To Re Quire ...

Valve
Valve. A Cover Or Stop To An Aperture, To Control Or Direct The Course Of Fluids. They Are Usually Contrived So As To Be Readily Opened By A Small Force Acting On One Aide, And To Be Perfectly Closed By A Force When Acting On The Oppoaite Side; And Thus ...

Vanadium
Vanadium. A Newly Discovered Metal By M. Elefetrom. It Has Been Briefly Described In A Letter From M. Berselius To M. Dulong, From Which The Following Is An Extract :—" M. Betatron', Director Of The School Of Mines At Fah Fun, Whilst Engaged In Examining A Variety Of Iron, Remarkable ...

Varnish
Varnish. A Solution Of Resinous Matter, Which, Laid Upon The Surface Of Solid Bodies, Becomes Hard, Glossy, Impervious To Moisture, And Gives Beauty And Durability To Them. Under The Several Heads Of Lac, Copal, Manic, Caoutcholic, And Other Resins, We Have Described The Process Of Preparing Var Nishes From Them; ...

Vellum Binding
Vellum Binding, As Was Before Observed, Is The Term Applied To The Binding Of Every Species Of Account Book. The First Step Is To Fold And Count The Paper Into Sections, Which In Foolscap Generally Consists Of Six Sheets ; Above That Size, Of Four Sheets, Which Are Sewed Upon ...

Ventilation
Ventilation. The Act Of Renovating The Air Of Chambers, Houses, Ships, And All Kinds Of Buildings Or Places. We May Exist Ibr Several Days Without Food, But We Die, If Deprived Only For A Few Minutes Of Air. As Air Is Necessary To Life, So Is Pure Air To Health. ...

Verdigris
Verdigris; Is A Crude Acetate Of Copper, Employed In The Arts As A Pig Ment; See Painting. It Is Usually Obtained By Moistening The Surfaces Of Copper Plates With Vinegar, And Exposing Them To The Action Of The Atmosphere ; A Bluish Green Rust, Or Fine Salt, Thereby Forms Upon ...

Vermilion
Vermilion. A Beautiful Scarlet-red Pigment. It Is Usually Obtained From Mercury, Being The Red Sulphuret Of That Metal. It Is Said, By Some Authors, That The Mimeos Vermilion Is A Sulphuret Of Arseek : Others, On The Contrary, Assert That It Is Prepared From The Cinnabar Of The East, Which ...

Vinegar
Vinegar. Acetic Acid In A Dilute State, Combined With Mucilage, And Sometimes Accompanied With Flavouring Ingredients.. Though Frequently Result Ing From Spontaneous Fermentation, This Useful Acid As Usually Obtained By The Manufacturing Processes Of Brewing And Fermentation. There Are Four Principal Kinds ; Namely, Wine Mew, Malt Vinegar, Sugar Vinegar, ...

Wafers
Wafers. Small Discs Of Dried Paste, Used For Sealing Letters. The Mode Of Making Them Is As Follows :—take Fine Wheat Flour, Mix It With White Of Eggs And Isinglass Into A Very Smooth Paste, And Spread The Same Over Tin Plates Evenly, And Dry Them In An Oven, Placing ...

Water
Water. A T Fluid Without Colour, Smell, Or Taste, Andcomprerlde Only In A Very Alight ; When Pure, Not Liable To Sponteneous Change ; At The Common Temperature Of Our Atmosphere, Assuming A Solid Form At Fahr. And &gaseous State At 2120•fahr., But Unaltered To Its Liquid State On Resuming ...

Water C
Water-c . It Was Not Until That Important Little Oonhivance, Edld The Water Late Or Air-trap Wan Invented, (which We Have Described Under The Mentioned Designation) That Private Dwellings Could Be Even Partially Newel Spinet The Annoyance Of Unpleasant Effluvia; But However Excellent May Be The Principle Of This Invention, ...

Water Wheel
Water-wheel, In The Common Acceptation Of The Term, Is An Instrument By Which The Moving Force Of Water Is Employed To Communicate Motion To Machinery; There Is, However, Another Class Of Water-wheels, Commonly Called Paddles, In Which The Water Is Employed As A Stationary Resisting Force. The Last Mentioned Class ...

Water Works
Water-works, Denote All Manner Of Works Employed In Raising Or Sus. Taining Water; In Which Sense Water-mills Of All Kinds, Pumps, Wheels, Hydraulic Engines, Sluices, Aqueducts, &c., Described In Various Parts Of The Work, May Be Called Water-works. The Various Water-works In And About London• Consist Of Pumps Worked By ...

Weaving
Weaving, Is The Art Of Working A Web Of Cloth From Silk, Cotton, Or Other Fibrous Thread, In A Loom, With A Shuttle. The Principle Of The Art May Be Mid To Consist In Crossing Two Sets Of Threads At Right Angles To Each Other; And It Was Probably First ...