CARMAON01.A, ritANcEsGo BUSSO'NE DI, count of Castel neer& was born at Carmagnola, a town of the province of Turin In Pledmost, about the year 1390. of bumble parents Early In life he selisted into the troop of Faeino Cane, a celebrated Condottiere of Lis time who was in the service of the Visconti, dukes of Milan. As he rem in rank he took the name of Carmagnela, from the place of his birth. After the death of Facino, Filippo Maria Visconti made Carasagnola his genemtin-chlef, as a reward for his bravery and services. Carmagnols was chiefly instrumental in placing Filippo Maria on the ducal throne of Milan, and he afterwards added to his dominions Piaoram, Brescia. Bergamo, and other towns. Filippo Maria created him Count of Castelnnoeo, gave him in marriage his relative Antonletto Visconti, and sent him to Genoa as governor. In 1424 Filippo Maria, who was of a dark suspicious temper, having lieLesed to the unfavourable reports of some courtiers around him, ordered Carmagnola to be deprived of his military command, upon which the latter repaired to the duke to remonstrate with him; but being denied an audience, he rode off with a few trusty companions, left the territory' of Milan, and after some wanderings repaired to Treviso, in the enetian territory, where the duke sent an assamin to murder him, but the plot failed. Ile then went to Venice, where ho arrived to February 1425.
The Venetian senate having declared war against the duke, in January 1426, appointed Carmagnola their captahogeneraL Cannagnolo defeated the duke', troops and took from him the province of Brescia, which was from that time incorporated with the Venetian state. In 1427 he defeated again. near Maclodio, the duke's troops, which were led by Stoma, Pergola, Piocinino, and Torello, all celebrated Condottieri of that time. After the battle, despite the remonstrance' of the Venetian commissioners, Carmagnola permitted his soldiers, who were chiefly mercenaries, to liberate all their prisoner'', according to the custom then prevalent among the Italian Condottieri; the reason of which was, that as those troop. fought merely for pay, they did not
wish utterly to destroy their antagonists, for fear that the war should come to an end too soon.
In 1423 [Awe was made between Venice and the duke, but in 1431 war broke out again, and Carmagnola, retaining the command of the Venetian army, attacked the castle of Soncino, but failed after a cou aiderahle loss. Shortly after, in July of the mine year, the duke's flotilla on the Po defeated that of Venice, in sight of Carmagnola's camp, who was not in time to support it. That commander was accused of neglect and even Inspected of treachery. The senate wrote him a letter of reproof, but continued him In command. In the following October Carmagnola attempted to surprise Cremona; part of his men entered the town, but the citizens rising in a many drove out the aasailauto. This failure increased the anspicione and fears of the Venetian mortars, who determined to deprive Carmagnola of his command, but fearing to attempt it while he was in the midst of his soldiers, by ahem he was beloved, they invited him by courteous letters to repair to Venice, In order that they might consult with him on the peace to be made with the duke. Carmagnola went to Venice, when he was received with marked distinction, and was led imme datoly to the ducal palace. Being introduced into the hall of the Council of Ten, he was all at once charged with treason, arrested, taken to the adjoining prison, examined secretly, put to the torture, and condemned to death. On the Lth of May 1432 he was led out, with his month gagged, to the Plazzetta of St. Mark, and there beheaded between the two pillars. Hie property was confiscated to the state. Concerning the guilt or Innocence of this celebrated collo mender moats diversity of opinion prevails'. Manson!, in his Notizie Storiabe,' which accompany his drama ' 11 Conte di Carmegnola,' has fully examine" the question and referred to the authorities on both elde,. Of the treacherous conduct of the Venetian senators there can be no question.